9.2. Illustrations 405 – 856

  • The ‘DOC’ numbers refer to the Documentary Illustrations, a collection of (book) illustrations related to the four-fold, which were sampled by the author from 1986 onwards. The first number indicates the book of the series, the second points to the figure. The sets (albums) of these DOC numbers can be found on Flickr – Quadralectics – http://http://www.flickr.com/photos/quadralectics
  • The ‘Int’ numbers refer to the collection of printed pages from the Internet, which were sampled by the author from September 1999 onwards. The first number indicates the book of the series, the second points to the page.

intenetfiles

—————-

Fig. 405 (p. 498) – The territories along the Silk Road between the Caspian Sea and the Taklimakan Desert. Drawing by Marten Kuilman. DOC86/10485; DOC91/11218; DOC95/11745.

Fig. 406  (p. 499) – Samaniden mausoleum in Bukhara, c. 907. HATTSTEIN, Markus & DELIUS, Peter (2000). Islam – Kunst en architectuur (Islam und Architektur). Könemann Verlaggesellschaft mbH, Keu-len. ISBN 3-8290-2557-2.  See also p. 431 in: FLETCHER, Banister (1975). A History of Architecture (revised by J.C. Palmer). The Athlone Press, University of London. London. SBN 0 485 55001 6  And: GANGLER, Anette ; GAUBE, Heinz & PETRUCCIOLI, Attilio (2004). Bukhara. The Eastern Dome of Islam. Urban Development. Urban Space, Architecture and Population. Edition Axel Menges, Stuttgart/ London. ISBN 3-932565-27-4. An interesting part of their book – worth further study – is the four-parted division in the typological process of the major monuments (in the city of Bukhara, Uzbekistan):

——————————————–    AXIALITY  ———————————————-

Monodirectional —— Bidirectional ——  Tridimentional ——  Pluridirectional

Uniform                           Composite                     Crossed                    Set up on a pivet

Repetitive                        Complementary           Hierarchic                Equivalent

Linear                               Serial                              Nodal                        Polar

Fig. 407 (p. 500) – The Mausoleum of Tamerlane in Samarkand. Drawing by Marten Kuilman after fig.10 in: KROMHOUT, W (?). Mahomedaansche kunst. Pp 65 – 123 in: BERLAGE, H.P. (Ed.). Zeven voordrachten over bouwkunst (gehouden voor ’t Genootschap Arcitectura et Amicitia). Nederlandsche Bibibliotheek, L. Simons (Ed.). Maatschappij voor goede en goedkoope lectuur, Amsterdam. DOC83/10120.

Fig. 408 (p. 501) – Community building and Sultan Sanjar Mausoleum in Merv (Turkmenistan). Drawings by Marten Kuilman, after p. 356 in: HATTSTEIN, Markus & DELIUS, Peter (2000). Op. cit. These authors also gave a photo and plan of the important Farah Bagh in Ahmadnagar (Dekkan), built 1576 – 1583. It was conceived by Sjah Murtaza Nizam I around a water basin in the style of a hasht-bihisht (eight paradises) complex. See for a scholarly book on this subject: PETRUCCIOLI, Attilio (Ed.)(1997). Gardens in the Time of the Great Muslim Empires: Theory and Design. Studies in Islamic Art and Architecture: Supplements to Muqarnas, Volume VII. Brill, Leiden. DOC86/10491

Fig. 409 (p. 502) – The khanqah at the Hakim Termezi Mausoleum in Termez (Uzbekistan). Drawing by Marten Kuilman after: HATTSTEIN, Markus & DELIUS, Peter (2000). Op. cit. DOC86/10494;  Int164/22151 – 22160.

Fig. 410 (p. 504) – Taj Mahal. DOC165/22275. Drawing by Marten Kuilman after a photo by Noreen Majeed. © 2000. http://www.imahal.com/about/taj_mahal.htm  Further illustrations (of many) can be found in: JELLICOE, Geoffrey & Susan (9175/1995). The Landscape of Man. Shaping the Environment from Prehistory to the Present Day. Thames and Hudson Ltd., London. ISBN 0-500-27819-9. DOC35/4788. And: PENNICK, Nigel (1979). The Ancient Science of Geomancy. Man in harmony with the earth. Thames and Hudson Ltd., London. DOC41/5454. Plate IV in: LETHABY, W.R. (1956). Architecture, Nature & Magic. Gerald Duckworth & Co., Ltd., London. DOC 76/921. HATTSTEIN, Markus & DELIUS, Peter (2000). Islam – Kunst en architec-tuur (Islam – Kunst und Architektur). Könemann Verlaggesellschaft mbH, Keulen. ISBN 3-8290-2557-2. DOC86/10499. FLETCHER, Banister (1975). A History of Architecture (revised by J.C. Palmer). The Athlone Press, University of London. London. SBN 0 485 55001 6. DOC95/11746.

Fig. 411 (p. 505) – La Conocchia, mausoleum near Caserta. Drawing by Marten Kuilman. Int165/22292; DOC90/11051. A photograph of the mausoleum on the Via Appia at S. Maria Capua vetere near Naples is given as fig. 86 in: COLVIN, Howard (1991). Architecture and the After-Life. Yale University Press, New Haven and London. ISBN 0-300-05098-4. The picture shows that ‘nearly all its architectural detail is gone, but the sur-viving matrix of masonry indicates a sophisticated design of interpenetrating forms’.

Fig. 412 (p. 506) – Perspective of Mausoleum to Frederick Prince of Wales. DOC80/9680. HARRIS, John (1967). Le Geay, Piranesi and International Neo-Classicism in Rome 1740 – 1750. PP. 189 – 196 in: FRASER, Douglas; HIBBARD, Howard & LEWINE, Milton J. (Ed.) (1967). Essays in the History of Architecture for Rudolf Wittkower. Part I.

Fig. 413 (p. 507) – Chapelle Sepulcrale by Marie-Joseph Peyre, designed in Rome between about 1753 and 1757. DOC80/9681. HARRIS, John (1967). Op. cit.

Fig. 414 (p. 508) – A plan of a mausoleum by F. Juvarra (1678 – 1736). HARRIS, John (1967). Le Geay, Piranesi and International Neo-Classicism in Rome 1740 –1750. Pp. 189 – 196 in: FRASER, Douglas; HIBBARD, Howard & LEWINE, Milton J. (Ed.) (1967). Essays in the History of Architecture for Rudolf Wittkower, Part I. One of Juvarra’s masterpieces is the Basilica di Superga in Turin (Pied-mont), built in 1717 – 1731. The octagonal church, situated on a mountain top, has a large cupola. The most prominent members of the House of Savoy are buried in the crypt of the church. There is a memorial in the back of the church for the Grande Torino soccer team. Their plane crashed into the side of the mountain in May 4, 1949. All passengers were killed, plunging the entire city into mourning. Filippo Juvarra’s other major contribution to architecture was the Royal Palace of Madrid (Palacio de Oriente or Palacio Real), together with Juan Bautista Sachetti (1690 – 1764). Other architects, like Ventura Rodriguez (1717 – 1785), Francesco Sabatini (1722 – 1797) and Scirmento were also involved. Juvarra’s countryman Giovanni Battista Tiepolo (1696 – 1770) painted, with his sons, the impressive ceilings in the Royal Palace in Madrid. DOC80/9673.

Fig. 415 (p. 509) The mausoleum for the Scottish philosopher David Hume (1777). A drawing by Marten Kuilman, after a photo by Joe Rock, in: BROWN, Iain Gordon (1991). David Hume’s Tomb: a Roman mausoleum by Robert Adam. Proc. Soc. Antiq. Scot., 121 (1991), pp. 391 – 422. Int166/22473. http://ads.ahds.ac.uk/catalogue/adsdata/PSAS_2002/pdf/vol_121/121_391_422.pdf

Fig. 416 (p. 510) – The Ste-Geneviève (Panthéon) in Paris. View from the south-west. A drawing by Marten Kuilman after: BRAHAM, Allen (1980). The Architecture of the French Enlightenment. Thames and Hudson, London. ‘When King Louis XV suffered from a serious illness in 1744 he vowed to build a church dedicated to Sainte-Geneviève if he would survive. After he recovered, he entrusted the Marquis of Marigny with the task of building the church, which was to replace the 6th century basilica, at the time known as the Abbey Sainte-Geneviève’. http://www.aviewoncities.com/paris/pantheon.htm A view of the Panthéon with a projected statue of Fame, dating from the mid 1790s, was given by the French painter and engraver Pierre-Antoine De Machy (1723 – 1807) and given as fig. 171 in: ETLIN, Richard A. (1984). The Architecture of Death. The Transformation of the Cemetery in Eighteenth-Century Paris. The MIT Pres, Cambridge and London, England. ISBN 0-262-05027-7. DOC89/10878

Fig. 417 (p. 512) –  A plan of ‘The Pyramid to contain five million of individuals designed for the centre of the Metropolis’. This commercial churchyard was proposed to cater for the increased population by 1/5th in the 1820’s in London. Guildhall Library, City of London. Plate 6 in: CURL, James Stevens (1980). A Celebration of death. An introduction to some of the buildings, monuments, and settings of funerary architecture in the Western European tradition. Constable and Company Limited, London. ISBN 0 09 46 3000 3. DOC 26/3643.

Fig. 418 (p. 513) – A cemetery for Chaux by the French architect Claude-Nicolas Ledoux, c. 1785.  From Daniel Ramée (1847). Architecture de C.N. Ledoux, Lenoir éditeur, Paris, 2 vols., pl. 141.  CHRIST, Yvan (1961). Projets et Divagations de Claude-Nicolas Ledoux, Architecte du Roi. Editions du Minotaure, Paris.  Also as fig. 101 in: ETLIN, Richard A. (1984). Op. cit. And on p. 273 in: VIDLER, Anthony (1990). Claude-Nicolas Ledoux. Architecture and Social Reform at the End of the Ancien Régime. The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts. ISBN 0-262-22032. DOC9/1093; DOC91/11145;  DOC103/12803.

Fig. 419 (p. 514) – Elisée or Cimetière Public by Gasse, 1799. The design was part of a competition. This formal Neoclassical scheme was influenced by Boullée. Curl noted that similar designs were given by Moreau and others. CURL, James Stevens (1980). Op.cit.  Also as fig. 153 (p. 194) in: CURL, James Stevens (1991). The Art and Architecture of Freemasonry. An Introductory Study. B.T. Batsford Ltd., London. ISBN 0 7134 5827 5. DOC26/3637.

Fig. 420 (p. 515) – The Thiepval Memorial by Edwin Luytens.  Drawing by Marten Kuilman after: SCULLY, Vincent (1991). Architecture. The natural and the manmade. St. Martin’s Press, New York. ISBN 0-312-06292-3. DOC88/10766.

Fig. 421 (p. 517) – The plan of Chiswick House (London). A drawing by Marten Kuilman after a plan of the piano nobile of Chiswick House. Int104/13971 – 13975; Int169/22805 – 22806. View and plan of the Chiswick House by Lord Burlington and William Kent (begun 1725) is given as fig. 792/793 in: JANSON, H.W. (1962/1986). History of Art. Harry N. Abrams, Inc., New York. ISBN 0-8109-1094-2. DOC84/10265. ‘This villa at Chiswick, Middlesex, was one of the results of Burlington’s studies at Vincenza. Built in 1725 (see page 224).’ in: GLOAG, John (1975). The Architectural Interpretation of History. Adam & Charles Black, London. ISBN 0 7136 1559 1. DOC103/12723. A comparison between Palladio’s Villa Rotonda in Vicenza (1550 – 1551) and Burlington’s Villa in Chiswick (1725) is given as fig. 42/43 in: SUMMERSON, John (1983). Die klassische Sprache der Architektur. Vieweg, Braunschweig, Wiesbaden (The Classical Language of Architecture, Thames & Hudson, London, 1980). ISBN 3-528-08763-3. DOC109/13567.

Fig. 422 (p. 518) – An alchemical laboratory. Etching, 1747. THOMPSON, C.J.S. (1932). The Lure and Romance of Alchemy. George G. Harrap & Comp., London. DOC36/4870.

Fig. 423 (p. 520) – The title page of a book by Ole Worm. Leiden/Amsterdam (1655); Universiteitsbibliotheek Amsterdam. BERGVELT, Ellinoor; MEIJERS, Debora & RIJNDERS, Mieke (1993). Verzamelen. Van rariteitenkabinet tot kunstmuseum. Open Universiteit, Heerlen/Gaade uitgevers, Houten. ISBN 90-6017-662-6. DOC26/3747.

Fig. 424 (p. 522) – House ‘De Hartekamp’ (Heemstede, The Netherlands). Int 169/22855. Drawing by Marten Kuilman, after: http://www.recreatie-kennemerland.nl

Fig. 425 (p. 523) – A plan of a museum. ROSENAU, Helen (1976). Boullée & Visionary Architecture. Academy Editions, London/Harmony Books, New York. LCCC-75-37387. DOC16/2291.

Fig. 426 (p. 524) – Inside of the Altes Museum (Berlin). Fig. 237, p. 525 in: BERGVELT, Ellinoor; MEIJERS, Debora & RIJNDERS, Mieke (1993). Op. cit. Also as fig. 59 in: HERDEG, Klaus (1983). The Decorated Diagram. Harvard Architecture and the Failure of the Bauhaus Legacy. The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, London England. ISBN 0-262-08127-X.   A grand view of the museum, built in 1824 – 1828, is given as fig. 104 in: SUMMERSON, John (1983). Die klassische Sprache der Architektur. Vieweg, Braunschweig, Wiesbaden (The Classical Language of Architecture, Thames & Hudson, London, 1980). ISBN 3-528-08763-3. DOC88/10846; DOC109/13594.

Fig. 427 (p. 525) – The plan of the Altes Museum, Berlin. Fig. 233, p. 322. BERGVELT, Ellinoor et al (1993). Op. cit. A front view of the museum is given as fig. 19 in: YARWOOD, Doreen (1991). The Architecture of Europe. The Nineteenth and Twentieth Century. Ivan R. Dee, Chicago. ISBN 0-929587-65-0. DOC88/10851; DOC74/8882.

Fig. 428 (p. 526) – Bode Museum , Berlin. Drawing by Marten Kuilman after a newspaper article: KERRES, Michel (2006). Een Pruisisch waterpaleis voor sculpturen. Kunst internationaal; NRC Handelsblad, zaterdag 21 oktober en zondag 22 oktober 2006.

Fig. 429 (p. 527) – Plan of the Glyptothek in München (Germany). KLENZE, von, Leo (1830). Sammlung architektönischer Entwürfe Glyptotheek, München. Fig. 216, p. 287 in: BERGVELT, Ellinoor et al (1993). Op. cit. DOC88/10850.

Fig. 430 (p. 528) – Montague House (London) in a drawing by Sutton Nichols (published 1754). BERGVELT, Ellinoor et al (1993). Op. cit. DOC88/10849; Int169/22916.

Fig. 431 (p. 529) – The Natural History Museum, London (Koninklijke Bibliotheek, ‘s-Gravenhage). Fig. 198, p. 269 in: BERGVELT, Ellinoor et al (1993). Op. cit.  The Town Hall of Manchester (1869 – 1877), also by Alfred Waterhouse, is a similar building with neo-Gothic elements and a tower. YARWOOD, Doreen (1991). Op. cit.  John SUMMERSON (1970) suggested a revaluation of Victorian architecture. He noted (p. 17/18) that ‘Never in English architecture was there present more brilliant talent than between 1840 and 1870; never was there more powerful draftsmanship, more dedicated research, more painstaking inquiry; never was there such industry and application, never such seriousness, such energy.’  SUMMERSON, John (1970). Victorian Architecture. Four Studies in Evaluation. Columbia University Press, New York and London. SBN 231-03261-7.  The conception of the Victorian age as the age of doubt is, in Summerson’s view, only a manifestation of profound anxiety. Ruskin – in his books ‘The Seven Lamps of Architecture’ (1849) and ‘The Stones of Venice’ (1851/ 1853) – did not point to any style and took the liberty to introduce anything. Disillusionment in architecture-in-general led to a ‘Picturesque Eclecticism’, a term coined by MEEKS (1950) based on Nikolaus Pevsner’s definition of the aesthetics of the nineteenth century. MEEKS, C.L.V. (1950). Picturesque Eclecticism. Pp. 226 – 235 in: JSTOR: The Art Bulletin, Vol. 32, No. 3 (Sep., 1950). The general feeling of this architectural period as a time of spurious sentiments was corrected in the middle of the twentieth century. Books like Henry-Russell HITCHCOCK’s ‘Early Victorian Architecture’ (1954) and Kenneth CLARK’s ‘The Gothic Revival: An essay in the History of Taste’ (1928/1950) presented a different view. Further study of ‘Victorian architecture’ in a quadralectic perspective seems urgently required. Anyone who is familiar with the  modern four-fold way of thinking will notice the distinct ‘Fourth Quadrant’ aspects in the expressions of nineteenth century architects. The widening of thoughts and intentions might lead to ‘eclecticism’, but it also represents a freedom of choice born in a deeper understanding.

Fig. 432 (p. 530) – The Great Court of the British Museum, London. Int165/22343; Int66/22380. Drawing by Marten Kuilman after: http://upload.wikipedia/commons/1/19/British_Museum_Great_Court

Fig. 433 (p. 531) – A plan for the proposed lay-out of the Louvre. Fig. 161, p. 213 in: BERGVELT, Ellinoor et al (1993).  Op. cit. DOC88/10845.

Fig. 434 (p. 532) – The glass pyramid at the Louvre Museum in Paris. Drawing by Marten Kuilman after a photo by Adrian Pingstone (June 2002): http://fr.wikimedia.org/wiki/Image:Paris.louvre.pyramid.250pix.jpg Int170/22965 ; Int170/23000.

Fig. 435 (p. 533) – Miho Museum at Shigaraki (Japan). Architect: M.I. Pei. Located at the Mikami-Tanakami-Shigaraki Prefectural Nature Park, East of Kyoto, Japan. Drawing by Marten Kuilman after: http://www.miho.or.jp/english/architec/photogalery/inside/tenku.jpg I.M. Pei also designed the wedge-shaped East Wing of the National Gallery in Washington D.C., using a triangular planning grid (1974 – 1978).

Fig. 436 (p. 534) – The Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao (Spain). Drawing by Marten Kuilman after a photo by the writer (May 2007). Int146/19663; Int159/21535.

Fig. 437 (p. 535) – Kinémax in the Futuroscope Park near Poitiers (France). Drawing by Marten Kuilman.

Fig. 438 (p. 536) – L’Hemisfèreric & El Palau de les Arts – Valencia (Spain). Architect: Santiago Calatrava. A drawing by Marten Kuilman after a photo by Victor Puig Vilarrubis, Barcelona, Spain. Flickr 378166595_0b440527261.jpg

Fig. 439 (p. 538) – Standin’ on the Corner Park in Winslow, Arizona (USA). Photo courtesy: La Posada Foundation. http://ci.winslow.az.us Drawing by Marten Kuilman.

Fig. 440 (p. 540) – The Tower of Babylon. Marx Anton Hannes, Kopen-hagen, 167 x 119 mm. In: ALEXANDER, Dorothy & STRAUSS, Walter L. (1977). The German Single-Leaf Woodcut. A Pictorial Catalogue. Vol. I: A – N. Abaris Books, Inc. New York. ISBN 0-913870-05-0/LCCC 76-22305. DOC15/2125.

Fig. 441 (p. 542) – Project for a monument by Tatlin, 1919 – 1920. A contemporary woodcut done from photos of the model by Louis Lozowick. Fig. 74 in: KHAN-MAGOMEDOV, Selim O. (1983). Pioneers of Soviet Architecture. The Search for new Solutions in the 1920s and 1930s. Thames and Hudson, London. ISBN 0-500-34102-8. Fig. 52 in: GIEDION, Sigfried (1941/1967). Space, Time and Architecture. The Growth of a New Tradition. The Charles Eliot Norton Lectures for 1938-1939. Harvard University Press, Cambridge Massachusetts. LCCCN 67-17310. DOC64/7742; DOC112/13981.

Fig. 442 (p. 543) – The monument to Victor Emmanuel II. A drawing by Marten Kuilman after: http://farm1.static.flickr.com/26/58556950_c6c4f761c7,jpg Photo by Paul S, Rome, 1980.

Fig. 443 (p. 546) – The winged bull at the entrance gate in Assur. An albaster sculpture of a winged human-headed bull from Nimrud, dating from the period of Assurnasirpal II, king of Assyria is now in the British Museum, London. Drawing by Marten Kuilman after: FRY, Nicholas (1975). Treasures of World Art. The Hamlyn Publishing Group Limited, London. ISBN 0 600 38722 4. DOC45/5729.

Fig. 444 (p. 548) – Graffiti from Dura Europos with the Palmyra Gate. From: ROSTOVTZEFF, M.I. (1944). The Excavations at Dura Europos, 5th Season (New Haven 1934). Plate XXXIII.1 In: KLENGEL, Horst (1971). Syria Antiqua. Edition Leipzig. DOC56/6978.

Fig. 445 (p. 549) – Saint George and the dragon. QUELLEC, Le, Jean-Loïc (1997). La naturalisation du dragon en Europe. Pp. 177 – 212 in: LEJEUNE. Claire (Ed.)(1977). Cahiers Internationaux de Symbolisme. No. 86-87-88. Saints et Dragons. Rôle des Traditions popu-laires dans la construction de l’Europe. Université de Mons-Hainaut. ISSN 0008-0284. DOC50/6316. ‘St. George was a martyr, patron of England, who suffered at or near Lydda, also known as Diospolis, in Palestine, probably before the time of Constantine.’ (Catholic Encyclopedia) http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/06453a.htm

Fig. 446 (p. 550) – The triumphal arch of Constantine in Rome. Int174/23534. A drawing by Marten Kuilman after: http://bluffton.edu/~sullivanm/italy/rome/archconstantine/0038.jpg

Fig. 447 (p. 551) – The tetrapylon in Palmyra (Syria). Int174/23544. Drawing by Marten Kuilman after: http://farm1.static.flickr.com/47/106034004_ed26c5ebbf.jpg?v=0

Fig. 448 (p. 552) – The tetrapylon at Lepcis Magna (Lybia). Fig. 100 in: GIEDION, S. (1969). Architektur und das Phänomen des Wandels. Die drei Raumkonzeptionen in der Architektur. Verlag Ernst Wasmuth, Tübingen. DOC12/1618.

Fig. 449 (p. 553) – A reconstruction of the South Tetrakionia in Jerash. BROWNING, Iain (1982). Jerash and the Decopolis. Chatto & Windus, London. ISBN 0 7011 2591 8. For a plan of the South Tetrapylon (by W.D. Merrill), see: KRAELING, Carl H. (1938). Gerasa. City of the Decapolis. American Schools of Oriental Research, New Haven, Connecticut. DOC41/5362; DOC92/11357.

Fig. 450 (p.554) – The northern side of the tretrapylon in Latakia, Syria. KADER, Ingeborg (1996). Propylon und Bogentor. Untersuchungen zum Tetrapylon von Latakia und anderen frühkaiserzeitlichen Bogenmonumenten im Nahen Osten. Verlag Philipp von Zabern, Mainz am Rhein. ISBN 3-8053-1866-9. DOC77/9326.

Fig. 451 (p. 555) – Comparison of different tetrapyla and quadrifrontes. KADER, Ingeborg (1996). Op. cit. DOC77/9335; Int175/23630 (Arco romano de Capara). 1. Tetrapylon of Marc Aurel and Lucius Verus in Tripoli (Lybia); 2. Tetrapylon of Marcus Aurel in Leptis Magna (Lybia); 3. Tetrapylon at the Via Malborghetto in Rome, fourth cent. AD; 4. Tetrapylon of Septimus Severus in Leptis Magna (Lybia); 5. Tetrapylon of Caracalla in Tebessa (Algeria), 214 AD; 6. The Arch of Ianus Quadrifrons at the Velabrum (next to the Forum Boarium) in Rome, early fourth century; 7. Tetrapylon of Trajan in Leptis Magna (Lybia); 8. Tetrapylon in Capara (Estremadura, Spain), end of first century AD; 9. Northern tetrapylon in Gerasa (Jordan), between 160 – 170 AD; 10. Tetrapylon at the Forum of Herculaneum, between 62 – 79 AD); 11. Tetrapylon at the Twin Tempel in Carsulae, Via Flaminia between Terni and Sangemini, first century AD; 12. Tetrapylon of Latakia (Syria).

Fig. 452 (p. 556) – Janus Quadrifons in Rome. DOC174/23556; Int60/8047 (About Janus). A drawing by Marten Kuilman after:http://www.bstorage.com/Photo/Italy/Misc/pages/B0309_0885.htm

Fig. 453 (p. 557) – The Arch of Janus by Etienne Du Pérac, 1575. Int176/23783 – 23791. http://www2.siba.fi/~kkoskim/imbas/roma/startpage.php

Fig. 454 (p. 558) – The Heidentor near Carnuntum (Vienna, Austria). Int111/14988 – 14995; Int177/23948 – 23957. A drawing by Marten Kuilman after a photo by H. Lohninger, Creative Commons. www.photoglobe.info  See also: http://www.photoglobe.info/hl_austria_lower/imgs/austria_20030928_015.jpg And: JOBST, Werner (2002). Das Heidentor von Petronell – Carnuntum. Verlag der Ősterreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften. ISBN 978-3-7001-3076-7

Fig. 455 (p. 559) – ‘Fragmenta structurae veteris’ by Jacques Androuet du Cerceau (1551). Orleans. Document Museum für Kunst und Gewerbe, Hamburg. CHASTEL, André (1968) La Crise de la Renaissance. 1520 – 1600. Editi-ons d’Art Albert Skira, Geneve. DOC49; 6195.

Fig. 456 (p. 560) – The Porte St-Denis in Paris by François Blondel (1671/73) as depicted by Gabriel Perelle in his book ‘Les Delices de Paris et ses environs ou Recoeuil de vues perspectives des plus beaux monuments de Paris’ (Paris, c. 1680). Fig. 74 in : NAREDI-RAINER, von, Paul (1982). Architektur und Harmonie. Zahl, Mass und Proportion in der abendländischen Baukunst. DuMont Buchverlag, Köln. ISBN 3-7701-1196-6. DOC26/3776.

Fig. 457 (p. 561) – Proportionscheme of the Porte St-Denis in Paris. NAREDI-RAINER, von, Paul (1982).  Op. cit. DOC26/3777.

Fig. 458 (p. 563) – The Brandenburger Gate in Berlin. PIES, Eike (1980). Goethe auf Reisen. Begegnungen mit Landschaften und Zeitgenossen. Kunst und Wohnen Verlag GmbH., Wuppertal 2. Also as drawing by Karl Wilhelm Kolbe, coloured by Johann Friedrich Jűgel. Photo by Norbert Enker, Essen, fig. 18 in: KRENZLIN, Ulrike et al. (1991). Die Quadriga auf dem Brandenburger Tor. Zwischen Raub, Revolution und Frieden. Verlag für Bauwesen, Berlin. ISDN 3-345-00512-3. DOC25B/3569; DOC60/7350.

Fig. 459 (p. 564) – The damaged quadriga of the Brandenburg Gate in 1950. 23 maart 1950. AZD ZBL. Fig. 28 in: KRENZLIN, Ulrike et al. (1991). Op. cit. DOC60/7352.

Fig. 460 (p. 565) – The Arch de Triomph du Carroussel in Paris, by Charles Percier and Pierre François Fontaine. A drawing by Marten Kuilman after: WALENKAMP, H.J.M. (?) Over hedendaagsche en toekomstige bouw-kunst. P. 283 – 340 in: BERLAGE, H.P. (?) (Ed.). Zeven voordrachten over bouwkunst (gehouden voor ‘t Genootschap Arcitectura et Amicitia). Nederlandsche Bibibliotheek, L. Simons (Ed.). Maatschappij voor goede en goedkoope lectuur, Amsterdam. DOC83/10133.

Fig. 461 (p. 566) – The radial avenues around the Arc de Triomph, Paris. For the urban developments of Paris, see also: AYERS, Andrew (2004). The Architecture of Paris. An architectural guide. Axel Menges, Stuttgart/London. And: SUTCLIFFE, Anthony (1993). Paris: An Architectural History. Yale University Press, New Haven. Also: ZANTEN, van, David (1994). Building Paris. Cambridge University Press, New York.

Fig. 462 (p. 567) – The western side of the Arch de la Defense, Paris. DOC74/8862. Fig. 4, p. 41 in: HOLLAND, Ingve Jan (1996). Grande Arche und Louvre-Pyramide. Zwei Pariser Staatsprojekte unter François Mitterrand. Scaneg Verlag, München. ISBN 3-89235-108-2. ‘Von Spreckelsen backed out of the project before its completion, reportedly disheartened by red tape and having grown displeased with his own design. He died before its completion’. http://www.geckogo.com/Attraction/France/Ile-de-France/Paris/La-Grande-Arche-de-la-Defense/

Fig 463 (p.568) – House by Peter van der Meulen Smith. Frontispiece of: HITCHCOCK Jr., Henry-Russell (1929/1970). Modern Architecture. Romanticism and Reintegration. Payson and Clarke, Ltd./Hacker Art Books, New York. LCCCN 73-116356. ISN 0-87817-044-8

Fig. 464 (p. 569) – The fanlight of Georgian houses in Dublin, Ireland.  http://farm2.static.flickr.com/1173/1309716463_3bdc5bb528.jpg The Georgian style (1714 – 1837) covers the reign of three Georges and is divided into a Palladian, early and late Georgian period. It can be seen as a reaction against the exuberance of the Baroque period. The Geffrye Museum in London (136 Kingsland Road, Shoreditch, London E2 8EA)  has rooms, which show the development of the Georgian style. The  Charlotte Square in Edinburgh was designed by Robert Adam in 1971 – just a year before he died – and has several beautiful examples of Georgian-style houses.

Fig. 465 (p. 570) – Pattern of decorational windows of Georgian Houses at Bedford Square, London. A drawing after photos by the author (2007).

Fig. 466 (p. 571) – Lighthouse near Taposiris Magna. Taposiris Magna on Lake Mariut – South of Alexandria, Egypte – Jimmy Dunn. Int178/24035 – 24043;  Int178/24047 – 24061; Int178/24063; Int179/24151 – 24155; Int179/24175  http://www.touiregypt.net/featurestories/taposiris.htm

Fig. 467 (p. 572) – The lighthouse of Alexandria on a mosaic in S. Marco, Venice. KERISEL, Jean (1991). La pyramide à traves les âges. Art et religious. Presses de l’ecole national des Ponts et Chaussées, Paris. ISBN 2-85978-166-8. DOC92/11349.

Fig. 468 (p. 573) – Omphalos. ©Ellen Papakyriakou/Anagnostou. http://www.sikyon.com/Delphi/Monuments/delphi_eg00a.html  Also in: ROSCHER, Wilhelm H. (1915). Neue Omphalosstudien. Ein archäologi-scher Beitrag zur vergleichenden Religionswissenschaft. XXXI. Bandes der Abhandlungen der philologisch-historischen Klasse der köningl. Sächsi-schen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften. No. 1. B.G. Teubner, Leipzig. DOC48/6158.

Fig. 469 (p. 574) – The obelisk of Hatsjepsut in the Temple of Amun-Re in Karnak (Luxor). A drawing by Marten Kuilman after a photo by: http://members.aol.com/Sakamoto31/hatsepsut.htm See also the website: ‘Obelisk of the World’ by Shoji Okamoto (Japan). Int179/24222.

Fig. 470 (p. 575) – Pope Sixtus V. P. 171, fig. 131 in: DUFFY, Eamon (1997). Saints and Sinners. A History of the Popes. Yale University Press. LCCCN 97-60897  ISBN 0-300-07332-1. DOC64/7743.

Fig. 471 (p. 576) – The Vatican obelisk in its original position next to the old church. Fig. 2 in: IVERSEN, Erik (1961). The Myth of Egypt and its Hieroglyphs. In European Tradition. GEC GAD Publishers, Copenhagen. DOC25A/3478.

Fig. 472 (p. 579) – Piazza della Rotonda by Piranesi (1751).  Antichita Romane, 1748/1756. Fig. 8-6c in: REYNOLDS, Donald M. (1989). Selected Lectures of Rudolf Wittkower. The Impact of Non-European Civilizations on the Art of the West. Cam-bridge University Press, Cambridge. ISBN 0-521-30508-X. ‘A series of copper plates were made by Jacob Friedrich after Giovanni Battista Piranesi’s ‘Veduta di Roma’. Jacob (Johann Christian Jacob) Friedrich (13. October.1746 Friedrichstadt near Dresden – 3. June 1813) was a flower- and landscape painter. He was also famous for his copper etchings.’ See:  http://www.philographikon.com/piranesifriedrich.html ‘After over eight years of careful study and excavation Piranesi produced this four-volume work which swiftly established his reputation in Europe as the leading protagonist of Roman archaeology. More than other such antiquarian work, the 250 plates of the Antichita played a dominant role in conveying information, and Piranesi was to develop a whole new range of specialized illustrations in order to reveal aspects of antiquity which had hitherto been largely neglected. His aim, as with all his archeological publications, was two-fold – to record the vanishing past for scholars and to inspire contemporary designers to emulate the achievements of the past’ (John Wilton-Ely).

Fig. 473 (p. 581) – The Heroes’ Last Rendez-vous’. Maréchal Lefebvre Selecting His Final Resting Place by Maréchal Masséna during the funeral of General Collaud. Nov. 11, 1819. From Marchant de Beaumont, Vues pittoresques, 1821. Fig. 258 in: ETLIN, Richard A. (1984). The Architecture of Death. The Transformation of the Cemetery in Eighteenth-Century Paris. The MIT Press, Cambridge, and London, England. ISBN 0-262-05027-7. DOC91/11168.

Fig. 474 (p. 582) – The Antonine Column by G.F. Bordino, 1588. Fig. 37 in: GIEDION, Sigfried (1941/1967). Space, Time and Architecture. The Growth of a New Tradition. The Charles Eliot Norton Lectures for 1938-1939. Harvard University Press, Cambridge Mass. LCCCN 67-17310. DOC64/7741.

Fig. 475 (p. 584) – Keppel’s Column at Wentworth Woodhouse in South Yorkshire. A drawing by Marten Kuilman after (p. 90): JONES, Barbara (1953/1974). Follies & Grottoes. Constable & Co Ltd., London. ISBN 0 09 459350 7. See for the Rockingham Mausoleum at Wentworth Woodhouse fig. 23 – 25: STILLMAN, Damie (1978). Death Defied and Honor Upheld; the Mauso-leum in Neo-Classical England. Pp. 175 – 213 in: The Art Quarterly, Vol I, Number 3 (1978). And further: COLVIN, Howard (1991). Architecture and the After-Life. Yale University Press, New Haven and London. ISBN 0-300-05098-4. DOC90/11009; DOC90/11076; Int181/24484 – 24487.

Fig. 476 (p. 585) – The Petronas Towers in Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia).  Int180/24367. A drawing by Marten Kuilman after a photo by Linakontos (September 21, 2006) at: http://www.flickr.com/photos/48618211@N00/242592573/

Fig. 477 (p. 586) – The columns in the Hypostyle Hall of the Temple of Amun-Re in Karnak (Egypt). Int179/24213. A drawing by Marten Kuilman after a photo by Katherine Young/EB Inc. at: http://concise.britannica.com/ebc/art-96652/Papyrus-columns-from-a-temple-at-Karnak

Fig. 478 (p. 587) – The Erechthyum at the Acropolis of Athens. The Caryatids guarded the grave of Erechtheus (Cecrops), the first king of Athens. A drawing by Marten Kuilman. A replica of the Caryatids is found at the St Pancras New Church on Euston Road in London (1819 – 1822). The ornamentation was created by John Charles Felix Rossi (1762 – 1839). See fig. 8.4 in: CONWAY, Hazel & ROENISCH, Rowan (1994/2005). Understanding Architecture. An introduction to architecture and architectural history. Routledge, Abingdon, Oxon./New York. ISBN 0-415-32059-3. DOC109/13522.

Fig. 479 (p. 589) – The Belvedere stairs in the Vatican in Rome. A photo by the author (Oct. 2000).

Fig. 480 (p. 590) – The classical Five Orders. CHITHAM, Robert (1985). The Classical Orders of Architecture. The Architectural Press, London. ISBN 0-85139-779-4. DOC78/9385.

Fig. 481 (p. 591) – Ionic capitals of the Sphinx Column at Delphi and Delos. BARLETTA, Barbara A. (2001). The Origins of the Greek Architectural Orders. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. ISBN 0 521 79245 2. For a plan of the sancturies of Delos see figure 1 in: ETIENNE, Roland (1989). Autels a Delos: deux points de topographie. Pp. 39-50 in: ETIENNE, Roland; Le DINAHET & YON, Marguerite (1989). Architecture et Poésie dans le monde grec. Hommage à George Roux. Maison de l’Orient, Lyon. DOC93/11455 – 11456; DOC74/8844.

Fig. 482 (p. 592) – The Ionic capital. CHITHAM, Robert (1985). Op. cit. DOC78/9387.

Fig. 483 (p. 593) – Drawings of upper part of Corinthian and Composite columns. CHITHAM (1985). Op. cit. DOC78/9388-9391.

Fig. 484 (p. 595) – The Courthouse of Vicksburg (Mississippi, USA).  Int182/24612. A drawing by Marten Kuilman after: http://www.oldcourthouse.org

Fig. 485 (p. 597) – A reconstruction of the north and east walls of shrine VII, with wall-paintings of textiles. MELLAART, James (1967). Çatal Hüyük. A Neolithic town in Anatolia. Thames and Hudson, London /The Cameliot Press Ltd., London. DOC45/5773.

Fig. 486 (p. 598) – Four layers of geometric signs at Çatal Hüyük (Turkey). MELLAART, James (1967). Op. cit. DOC45/5759.

Fig. 487 (p. 599) – A Fragment of an Archaic Temple Model from Artemis Orthia, Sparta by  R. W. V. CATLING (1994). Pp. 269 – 275 in: The Annual of the British School at Athens. Vol. 89. Published by British School at Athens (BSA). Fig 15 in: BARLETTA, Barbara A. (2001). The Origins of the Greek Architectural Orders. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. ISBN 0 521 79245. DOC93/11448.

Fig. 488 (p. 600) – The development of the cross from the Chi-Rho mono-ram. 1. S. Just; 2. Penmacho; 3,4. Kirkmadrine; 5. Whithorne; 6. Aglish; 7. Maumenorig; 8. Modern Dedication Cross, S. Olave’s Church, Ramsey, 1860. KERMODE, P.M.C. (1907). Manx crosses or the inscribed and sculptured monuments of the Isle of Man from about the end of the fifth to the beginning of the thirteenth century. Bemrose & Sons, Ltd., London. DOC10/1311.

Fig. 489 (p. 601) – The death of many generations. LAING, John & WIRE, David (1993). The encyclopedia of signs and symbols. Crescent Books, New York. DOC55/6881.

Fig. 490 (p.603) – Plan of the Stillorgan obelisk, Dublin (Ireland). Fig. 6 in: HOWLEY, James (1993).The Follies and Garden Buildings of Ireland. Yale University Press, New Haven and London. ISBN 0-300-05577-3. DOC93/11504.

Fig. 491 (p. 605) – Marino Casino, Dublin. Drawing by Marten Kuilman. DOC93/11512;  DOC93/11529;  DOC93/11536, 11538 – 11539.

Fig. 492 (p. 606) – Elevation and plan of the Marino Casino at Dublin. HOWLEY, James (1993). Op. cit.  The actual dates of construction of the Casino are not well known, but the first design sketch dated from 1757 and the actual building by Simon Vierpyl (c. 1725 – 1810) probably started in 1759. The work continued for well over ten years. The Marino Casino was restored and reopened in 1984 after years of neglect, but is now a gem of tetradic architecture and can be regarded as one of the finest neo-classical buildings in Europe. The Greek cross with four equal arms is a classical tetradic feature. The central dome houses the Zodiac room, with reference to Masonic symbolism. DOC93/11529.

Fig. 493 (p. 607) – Conolly’s Folly at Castletown House, Dublin. Drawing by Marten Kuilman after p. 122 in: JONES, Barbara (1953/1974). Follies & Grottoes. Constable & Co., Ltd., London. ISBN 0 09 459350 7. DOC77/9248.

Fig. 494 (p. 608) – The Wonderful Barn, Castletown (Ireland). Fig. 334 in: HOWLEY, James (1993). Op. cit. DOC93/11548 – 11550.

Fig. 495 (p. 609) – The dovecote at Chateau Chapdeuil, France. Drawing by Marten Kuilman after photograph by the author (2007).

Fig. 496 (p. 610) – The Temple of Arethusa. William Chambers (1763). Plans, Elevations, and Perspective Views Of The Gardens And Buildings At Kew in Surry. In: WEISS, Thomas (1996). Sir William Chambers und der Englisch-chinesi-sche Garten in Europa. Verlag Gerd Hatje. ISBN 3-7757-0637-2. DOC67/7929.

Fig. 497 (p. 611) – The Marble Marble Pavillion in Barockpark Karlsaue, Kassel (Germany) built in 1728. A drawing by Marten Kuilman after: BARLOW, Nic & AALL, Sally S. (1994). Follies and Fantasies. Germany and Austria. Harry N. Abrams, Inc. New York. ISBN 0-8109-3323-3. DOC92/11381.

Fig. 498 (p. 612) – The CF-graph of the visibility area X of the European cultural history with the ‘Year of the Folly’ (1720). Interpretation by the author.

Fig. 499 (p.613) – The Boudoir in the park of Schloss Hohenheim, Stuttgart, Germany. Print, 1796. BARLOW, Nic & AALL, Sally S. (1994). Op. cit. DOC92/11378.

Fig. 500 (p. 614) – The octagonal orientated buildings at Clemenswerth (Germany). A drawing by Marten Kuilman. DOC92/11387.

Fig. 501 (p. 615) – Groundfloor (left) of the Broken Column and the Temple of Repose (right) at the Desert de Retz, west of Paris. KETCHAM, Diana (1990/1994). Le Désert de Retz. A Late Eigtheenth-Century French Folly Garden, The Artful  Landscape of Monsieur de Monville. Arion Press. The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts/ London, England. ISBN 0-262-11186-1. See also for a rock entrance of the ‘Desert de Retz’: George Louis le ROUGE (1785). Details de nouveaux jardins à la mode. In: SCHAMA, Simon (1995). Landscape and Memory. Harper Collins Publishers, London. ISBN 0 00 215897 3. DOC94/11601; Int184/24930 – 24933.

Fig. 502 (p. 616) – The Barrière de la Villette, north-eastern Paris. A drawing by Marten Kuilman after: BRAHAM, Allen (1980). The Architecture of the French Enlightenment. Thames and Hudson, London. DOC89/10892.

Fig. 503 (p. 617) – The Armour-Stiner House. A drawing by Marten Kuilman. See for Orson Squire Fowler House (1848 – 1853) in Fishkill, New York also fig. 5.66 in: ROTH, Leland M. (2001). American Architecture. A History. Icon Editions, Westview Press/Perseus Books Group; Boulder, Colorado/Oxford. ISBN 0-8133-3661-9  And the source: FOWLER, Orson S. (1853/1973). The Octagon House. A Home for All. Dover Publications, Inc. New York. ISBN 0-486-22887-8. Int240/32315 – 32324; DOC97/11999 – 12011.

Fig. 504 (p. 620) – The CF-graph of the Roman and European cultural history with the positions of Vitruvius and Palladio and their main publications as interpreted by the author.

Fig. 505 (p. 621) – Villa Rotonda. Andrea Palladio – I Quattro Libri. PALLADIO, Andrea (1570/1983). Die Vier Bücher zur Architektur (I Quattro Libri dell’Architetettura); tr. Andreas Beyer & Ulrich Schütte). Verlag für Architektur Artemis, Zürich und München. ISBN 3 7608 81165.  Fig. 48 in: KRUFT, Hanno-Walter (1985/1994). A History of Architectural Theory from Vitruvius to the Present. Zwemmer/Princeton Architectural Press, New York. ISBN 0 03202 00603 6. DOC30/4151;  DOC67/7982.

Fig. 506 (p. 622) –  Villa Capra detta La Rotonda, Via della Rotonda 45, 36100 Vicenza (Italy). The correct name is Villa Almerico-Capra. It is also known as La Rotonda, Villa Rotunda, Villa La Rotonda, and Villa Almerico. The name ‘Capra’ derives from the Capra brothers, who completed the building after it was ceded to them in 1591. A drawing by Marten Kuilman after: WITMAN, Bob (2003). Verstopte schatten. De Volkskrant – Traject. Zater-dag 22 november 2003.

Fig 507 (p. 625) – The main components of a (quadralectic) communication and their position in a cyclic interaction.

Fig. 508a (above) (p. 626) – Egyptian sign for ‘city’ and village. Fig. 44 in: MÜLLER, Werner (1961). Die heilige Stadt. Roma quadrata, himmliches Jerusalem und die Mythe vom Weltnabel. W. Kohlhammer Verlag GmbH., Stuttgart. DOC26/3737; DOC50/6381.

Fig. 508b (below) (p. 626) – Ideogram of ‘niwt’’ or indication of inhabited place. BETRO, Maria C. (1995/1996). Heilige Zeichen. 580 ägyptische Hiero-glyphen. Das Land der Pharaonen im Spiegel seiner Schrift. Arnoldo Mandadori Editore S.p.A., Mailand/Gustav Lübbe Verlag, Bergisch Gladbach. ISBN 3 – 7857-0841-6  Also as: BETRO, Maria C. (1995). Hieroglyphics. The Writings of Ancient Egypt. Abbeville Press Publishers, New York/London. ISBN 0-7892-0232-8  and: BUDGE, E.A. Wallace (1920/1978). An Egyptian Hieroglyphic Dictionary. Dover edition (2 Vol.). ISBN 0-486-23615-3

Fig. 509 (p. 628) – Hongkong with new squatter areas. SCHINZ, Alfred (1989). Cities in China (Urbanization of the Earth 7; TIETZE, Wolf (Ed.) Gebrüder Borntraeger, Berlin/Stuttgart. ISBN 3-443-37009-8. DOC91/11255.

Fig. 510 (p. 629) – A proposed scheme of the main psychological themes in the Fourth Quadrant.

Fig. 511 (p. 631) – A wall of the church of Puntagorda (Canary Islands). A photo by the author (March 2006).

Fig. 512 (p. 634) – The leaf as an example of centres and bilateral symmetry. P. 93 in: ALEXANDER, Christopher; NEIS, Hajo; ANNINOU, Artemis and KING, Ingrid (1987). A New Theory of Urban Design. Oxford University Press, Oxford. ISBN 0-19-503753-7. DOC92/11347.

Fig. 513 (p. 635) – The Dead Cities west of Aleppo (Syria). BALL, Warwick (1998). Syria. A historical and architectural guide. Interlinks Books, New York. ISBN 1-56656-225-2

Fig. 514 (p. 636) – Plans of Syrian Cities in the Hellenistic Period on the same scale. GRAINGER, John D. (1990). The Cities of Seleukid Syria. Clarendon Press, Oxford. ISDN 0-19-814694-9. See also for the historic position of the Syrian cities in Hellenistic times: JONG, de, Lidewijde (2007). Narratives of Roman Syria: a historiography of Syria as a province of Rome. Princeton/Stanford Working Papers in Classics Version 1.0., Stanford University. http://www.princeton.edu/~pswpc/pdfs/dejong/070705.pdf  ‘Scholars tend to use the terms ‘Greek’, ‘Hellenized’ and ‘Hellenistic’ indiscriminately when discussing the eastern Mediterranean. For this research, ‘Greek’ refers to Greece and the western coast of Turkey, and to the language. ‘Hellenization’ is the influence of Macedonian and Greek traditions on those of the inhabitants of Syria. ‘Hellenistic’, on the other hand, is a time-period (323-64 BCE)’.  ‘It is assumed that the cities founded by Hellenistic rulers in the 4th and 3rd c. BCE in North Syria were organized on the model of the Greek polis and held a degree of autonomy. These are known as the Tetrapolis in northern Syria (Antioch, Apamea, Laodicea, and Seleucia-ad-Pieria)’. De Jong (2007, p. 15) noted that the Greek influence in Syria was minimal: ‘Sauvaget’s study of Hellenistic city planning is an example of the longstanding paradigm of Hellenistic Syria and its problems (SAUVAGET, 1934). In the early 20th century, he surveyed modern cities and reconstructed their ancient city plan. He collected evidence for rectilinear city plans and the city walls in Laodicea (modern Lattakia), Antioch (Antakia), Apamea, Damascus, Beroia (Aleppo) and Doura Europos. He argued that these cities were designed and constructed in one try by the colonists at the end of the 4th and early 3rd c. BCE.’ SAUVAGET, Jean (1934). Le plan de Laodicée-sur-mer. Pp. 81 – 114 in: Bulletin d’Études Orientales 4 (1934). ‘Even though Sauvaget’s evidence, textual or archaeological, actually dates not to the Hellenistic period but to several centuries after the initial colonization (2nd-6th c. CE), most scholars use his findings in their analyses of the Hellenistic period in Syria.  Even Grainger in his very detailed study of Seleucid cities bases his reconstruction of the size and number of colonists on Sauvaget’s findings (GRAINGER, 1990)’. (de JONG, 2007; p. 16): ‘Instead, the construction of typical ‘Greek’ buildings, the mention of a polis-structure, and most inscriptions in the Greek language, belong to the 1st c. CE and later, well into the period of Roman occupation of Syria. The full expression of hellenization of cities and villages therefore was a feature not of the Hellenistic but of the Roman period’. DOC56/6971 – 6976.

Fig. 515 (p. 637) – A sun-cracked surface of a city plan in Tazacorta (La Palma, Spain). After photos by the author (March 2006). Cyril Stanly Smith (1965) gives a common pattern of craze lines on a glazed ceramic surface in his article on ‘Structure, substructure and super-structure’, pp. 29 – 41 (fig. 7) in: KEPES, Gyorgy (Ed.)(1965). Structure in Art and in Science. Studio Vista, London/George Braziller Inc., New York. DOC109/13528.

Fig. 516 (p. 638). A painted surface in Voorhout (Zuid Holland) near Panorama TulipLand (by Leo van den Ende). After a photo by the author (2004). The related phenomenon of ‘mud cracks’ (dissiccation cracks) is well-known in geology. These sedimentary structures are formed when fine-grained sediments (like mud) are exposed and desiccates.

Fig. 517 (p. 642) – The Palm Project in Dubai. http://www.jebelalibaba.com/wp-content/uploads/2007/05/palm_jebelali1.jpg http://realestate.theemiratesnetwork.com/developments/dubai/palm_islands The Palm Islands are the largest man-made islands in the world. The concept was announced in 2001. Four groups of islands were planned: the Palm Jumeirah, the Palm Jebel Ali and the Palm Deira and a group of islands representing ‘The World’. Int240/32351 – 32355.

Fig. 518 (p. 643) – Rock carvings on La Palma (Spain). After photos by the author (March 2006).

Fig. 519 (p. 645) – Daschly-3 complex in Central Asia. P. 59 in: SARIANIDI, Viktor (1986). Die Kunst des alten Afghanistan. VEB E.A. Seemann Verlag, Leipzig. See for more detail of the central part: FORTE, Maurizio & SILIOTTI, Alberto (Ed.) (1996). Virtual Archaeology. Great Discoveries Brought to Life Through Virtual Reality. Thames and Hudson. Arnoldo Mondadori editore, Milan. ISBN 0-500-05085-6. DOC71/8516;  DOC50/6353.

Fig. 520 (p. 646) – Daschly-3, Bactria. P. 53 in: SARIANIDI, Viktor (1986). Op. cit. An article by Subhash KAK (2005) pointed to ‘the palace in Dashli-3 in North Afghanistan of 2000 B.C. that uses yantric forms that have traditionally been considered to be late. Since these forms are obviously in the Vedic tradition (although they would be correctly called post-Vedic), it is clear that palace building was a part of the tradition as early as 2000 B.C., if not earlier.’ See fig. 2 and 3 for a plan and oblique view of the Dashli-3 palace. Subhash Kak draws attention to ‘the continuity between Harappan and historical art and writing’ and will fill up ‘the gap in the post-Harappan, pre-Buddhist art of India by calling attention to the structures in northwest India (c. 2000 BC) that are reminiscent of Puranic ideas’. His article ‘summarized evidence related to the Vedic ideas of sacred geometry and its transformation into the classical Hindu temple form’. DOC71/8515. KAK, Subhash (2005). Early Indian Architecture and Art. Pp. 6 – 27 in: Migration & Diffusion. An international journal, Vol. 6, nr. 23 (2005). http://simnet.is/kambur33/papers/papers/EarlyArchitecture.pdf

Fig. 521 (p. 647) – Dashly Palace Floor Plan. Int83/11138 – 11144. Steve PRICE (2000). Archived Salon Discussions/Salon 40: Old Motifs: The Bactria-Margiana Archaeological Complex as a Possible Source – Christoph Huber. http://www.turkotek.com/salon_00040/s40t1.htm

Fig. 522 (p. 648) – Kutlug-Tepe, Bactria (Afghanistan). P. 73 in: SARIANIDI, Viktor (1986). Op. cit. KAK (2005, fig. 4). Op. cit. pointed to a square building plan of a palace in Kutleg Tepe (Bactria) dating from the first millemnnium BC. ‘Its open central courtyard and the altar in the middle are remarkably similar to the plan for sacred and royal structure as provided in the Vāstu texts.’  The plan for a sacred structure or house according to Vāstu texts (see fig. 5) has a (double) 9 x 9 grid around a central (empty) area (Brahma). DOC71/8518.

Fig. 523 (p. 649) – The circle, square and dome. ARDALAN, Nader & BAKHTIAR, Laleh (1973). The Sense of Unity. The Sufi Tradition in Persian Architecture. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago/London. ISBN 0-226-02560-8. DOC20/2909.

Fig. 524 (p. 650) – The Round City of Baghdad, around 800 – 1000 AD. GALANTAY, Ervin Y. (1979). New Towns: Antiquity to the Present. George Braziller, New York. ISBN 0-8076-0766-5    See for a map also: WOOD, Michael (1992). Legacy, a search for the origins of civilization. BBC Books. DOC29/4081; DOC32/4450-4451; DOC94/11649.

Fig. 525 (p. 651) – The Viking settlement Trelleborg in Denmark. MŰLLER, Werner (1961). Die heilige Stadt. Roma quadrata, himmlisches Jerusalem und die Mythe vom Weltnabel. W. Kohlhammer Verlag GmbH., Stuttgart. DOC26/3730.

Fig. 526 (p. 652) – The planned cities of Cittadella and Castelfranco Veneto (Italy), founded in 1220 and 1195. HYDE, J.K. (1973). Society and politics in Medieval Italy. The Evolution of the Civil Life, 1000 – 1350. The Macmillan Press Ltd., London and Basingstoke. ISBN 0 333 11459 0. DOC32/4450 – 4451.

Fig. 527 (p. 653) – The city of Cabourg (France). Copy of a folder issued by the Bureau de Tourisme Cabourg, May 2003.

Fig. 528 (p.654) – The round village of Mexcaltitan (Mexico). Int52/6933 – 6938; Int76/10276 – 10280; Int185/25084 – 25090 http://farm3.static.flickr.com/2352/1800565457_f6fddcc1b7_o.jpg

Fig. 529 (p. 655) – The circular ground plan of a larger Hakka dwelling. Int185/25107. http://www.xihalife.com/bbs/cities/travel/1395.htm

Fig 530 (p. 655) – A  Hakka settlement in Yongding county. BOYD, Andre (1962). Chinese Architecture  and Town Planning. 1500 B.C. – A.D.  1911. Alec Tiranti, London. DOC75/9067;  Int185/25107 – 25121; Int204/27628 – 27631.

Fig. 531 (p. 656) – The yurt. P. 88 in: SPLUNTER, van, Job (1994). Esoterie & Architectuur. Speurtocht naar het ontstaan van vormen. Elmar BV, Rijswijk. ISBN 90389 02018. DOC79/9633; Int185/25122 – 25125.

Fig. 532 (p. 657) – Inner Mongolia. The change from a Mongolian yurt to a Chinese farmhouse. Fig. 372 in: SCHINZ, Alfred (1989). Cities in China (Urbanization of the Earth 7; TIETZE, Wolf (Ed.). Gebrüder Borntraeger, Berlin/Stuttgart. ISBN 3-443-37009-8    Also in a reworked version as: SCHINZ, Alfred (1996). The Magic Square. Cities in Ancient China. Editions Axel Menges. ISBN 10-3930698021. DOC91/11260.

Fig. 533 (p. 658) – The community of Circleville (Ohio). A map of 1836 is also given as fig. 99 in: REPS, John W. (1965/1969). Town Planning in Frontier America. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey. LCCN 68-20877. DOC75/9087.

Fig. 534 (p. 659) – Redevelopment (‘squaring’) of Circleville, Ohio 1837 – 1856. Fig. 100 in: REPS, John W. (1965/1969). Op. cit. The following quotation can be found on the site of the Ohio City Production (Copyright © 2010, All Rights Reserved): ‘Founded in 1810, Circleville’s name is derived from a large Indian earthwork that existing where the town was first built. Living up to its chosen name, the original town plan integrated a circular street layout that emanated out from the center with an octagonal courthouse directly in the center. In time, this layout proved unsatisfactory, and in 1837, the Ohio General Assembly authorized the “Circleville Squaring Company” to convert Circleville into a conventional street layout grid with rectangular blocks. This was completed over a period of years and was totally complete by 1856. The original Indian mound is completely gone with no remaining traces remaining. There are a few buildings that were part of the original circular layout and have retained curved walls’. http://www.touring-ohio.com/central/circleville/circleville.html A different orientation of the sequence is given as fig. 160 in: KOSTOF, Spiro (1991). The City Shaped. Urban Patterns and Meanings Through History. A Bullfinch Press Book/Little, Brown and Company. Boston, Toronto, London. ISBN 0-8212-1867-0. DOC75/9088; Docill98/12166.

Fig. 535 (p. 660) – Part of the development plan for the Armenian capital of Erevan by A.Tamanyan, 1924. KOPP, Anatale (1985). Constructivist Architecture in the USSR. Academy Editions, London, New York. ISBN 0-312-16599-4. Also p. 292, fig. 732 in: KHAN-MAGOMEDOV, Selim O. (1983). Pioneers of Soviet Architecture. The Search for new Solutions in the 1920s and 1930s. Thames and Hudson, London. ISBN 0-500-34102-8. DOC113/14002.

Fig. 536 (p. 661) – Nuclear towns by Ernst Gloeden, 1923. Pl. 80 in: GALANTAY, Ervin Y. (1979). New Towns: Antiquity to the Present. George Braziller, New York. ISBN 0-8076-0766-5. DOC94/11700.

Fig. 537 (p. 663) – Wewelberg Castle near Paderborn (Germany). BAIGENT, Michael; LEIGH, Richard & LINCOLN, Henry (1988). De Messi-aanse erfenis. De geheime kracht van de Prieure de Sion. B.V. Uitgevers-maatschappij Tirion, Baarn/Cape, London. ISBN 90-5121-107-4. DOC38/5079.

Fig. 538 (p. 664) – Extern Steine near Horn/Bad Meinburg. Drawing by Marten Kuilman after a photograph by the author (2006). See also an article by Liam ROGERS (2000). The Nazi Necromancer? The Magical World of Heinrich Himmler.  http://www.whitedragon.org.uk/articles/himmler.htm  ‘The SS was modeled on the Teutonic Knights, an offshoot of the Knights Templar who were thought to have custody of the Holy Grail (as well as the ancient Indian warrior caste of the Kshatriya). Therefore SS teams were sent in search of the Grail, as well as the Ark of the Covenant. At first it would seem a little strange that a man (Himmler) who had renounced Christianity and oversaw the systematic murder of millions of Jews should be interested in such relics but the theory was that Jesus was Aryan and his father a Roman. The Grail that held his blood could therefore add to SS research into Aryan bloodlines’. Rogers (2000) continues: ‘The most famous Nazi sacred centre was the Externsteine near Detmold, north-east of Dortmund. Here stand four spectacular columns of rock, one of which has a small chapel cut into it. The window of the chapel admits the rising sun at midsummer. According to Teudt this was where the sacred pillar of the Saxons, Irminsul, stood until toppled by Charlemagne (it almost certainly didn’t), and a carving of a “weeping Irminsul” is supposed to be on one of the pillars of rock. The Externsteine was at the centre of alignments (never statistically tested by the Nazis) and was supposed to have been a sacred centre before Stonehenge. Excavations in the 1930’s found only pottery from the seventh century CE, and the majority from the eleventh to fourteenth centuries.The chapel is actually Christian, not pagan, and probably medieval.’

Fig. 539 (p. 665) – The lay out of a Roman settlement. MŰLLER, Werner (1961). Die heilige Stadt. Roma quadrata, himmlisches Jerusalem und die Mythe vom Weltnabel. W. Kohlhammer Verlag GmbH., Stuttgart. DOC26/3726.

Fig. 540 (p. 666) – Centurations in the area of Béziers (France). CLAVEL-LEVEQUE, Monique & FAVORY, François (1992). Les gromatici veteres et les réalités paysagères : présentation de quelques cas. Pp. 88-137 in : BEHRENDS, Okko & COLOGNESI, Luigi Capogrossi (1992). Die römische Feldmesskunst. Interdisziplinäre Beiträge zu ihrer Bedeutung für die Zivilisationsgeschichte roms. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht in Göttingen. ISBN 3-525-82480-7. DOC95/11798.

Fig. 541 (p. 667) – Centurations in the area of Béziers (France). CLAVEL-LEVEQUE, Monique & FAVORY, François (1992). Op. cit. DOC95/11799.

Fig. 542 (p. 668) – Manual for Roman surveyors. British Library, Aditional MS. 47679, f. 71. HARVEY, P.D.A. (1991). Medieval maps. The British Library Board, London. ISBN 0 7123 0232 8. DOC25A/3512.

Fig. 543 (p. 669) – Roma quadrata. BOER, de, M.G. & HETTEMA, H (1913). Platen-Atlas ten gebruike bij het onderwijs in de Algemeene Geschiedenis. A.W. Sijthoff Uitg. Mij., Leiden.

Fig. 544 p. 670 – A corner of the ´Quattro Canti´ in Palermo, Sicily. Int67/9085. Drawing after a photo by René Seindal – Copyright©René Seindal 1999-2008. http://sights.seindal.dk/photo/12300,s58f.html

Fig. 545 (p. 671) – The cross-shape of Bristol (England). MICHELL, John (1969/1983). The New View over Atlantis. Thames and Hudson, London. ISBN 0 500 01302 0. DOC2/151; Int187/25335; Int188/25438 – 25439. See also: Ricart’s View of Bristol in Bristol Magazine October 2006 by Jean MANCO (2006), published online 1 November 2006: http://ww.buildinghistory.org/bristol/ricart.htm

Fig. 546 (p. 672) – Map of Tenochtitlan (Mexico).  HARDOY, Jorge E. (1964/1973). Pre-Columbian Cities. George Allen & Unwin Ltd., London. ISBN 0-04-722001-5. The illustration in this book has made a half-turn to the left from the original woodcut in an edition of the first of Hernando Cortes’ letters to the Emperor Charles V (Nuremberg, 1524). A similar repreduction is given by:  ZUCKER, Paul (1959). Town and Square. From the Agora to the Village Green. Columbia University Press, New York. LCCCN 59-11183. The Gulf of Mexico is figured at the top of the picture by: DICKASON, Olive P. (1984). The Myth of the Savage and the Beginnings of French Colonialism in the Americas. The University of Alberta Press, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. ISBN 0-88864-036-6. A proper representation of the original is given by: KRUFT, Hanno-Walter (1985/1994). A History of Architectural Theory from Vitruvius to the Present. Zwemmer/Princeton Architectural Press, New York. ISBN 0 0302 00603 6. The drawing, with the Gulf in the lower half, was ‘the first Western plan of the Mexican city of Tenochtitlan, constructed on the quaternity principle. The drawing is attributed to Albrecht Dürer or one of his brothers’. In: PENNICK, Nigel (1979). The Ancient Science of Geomancy. Man in harmony with the earth. Thames and Hudson Ltd., London. A proper reproduction (with the Gulf of Mexico and additional text to the left) of the hand-coloured woodcut from the Praeclara de Nova maris oceani Hyspania narratio (Nuremberg, 1524) is given in: FORTE, Maurizio & SILIOTTI, Alberto (Ed.)(1996). Virtual Archaeology. Great Discoveries Brought to Life Through Virtual Reality. Thames and Hudson. Arnoldo Mondadori editore, Milan. ISBN 0-500-05085-6. Richard KAGAN (2000) has the best (coloured) representation of the map derived from the woodcut ‘La gran ciudad de Temixitan’ in ‘Praeclara Fernanandi de Nova Maris Oceani Hispana Narratio’ (The Newberry Library, Chicago). KAGAN, Richard L. (2000). Urban Images of the Hispanic Wolrd 1493 – 1793.Yale University Press, New Haven/London. ISBN 0-300-08314-9. The same picture, with a reference to KAGAN (2000), is completely upside down (north to the top, with the Gulf to the right) on the site: http://hemi.nyu.edu/archive/studentwork/colony/carmona/images.htm. A map of Tenochtitlan (by Violich) with a proper north direction – but no forked road – is given in: CASTAGNOLI, Ferdinando (1971). Orthogonal Town Planning in Antiquity. The MIT Press, Cambridge and London, England. ISBN 0 262 03042. DOC97/12029. The same picture as KAGAN (2000) from the ‘Preaeclara Fernandi Cortesii de nova maris Oceani Hyspania narratio’ in the Newberry Library, Chicago can be found on p. 75 and boths covers of: EATON, Ruth (2001). Ideal Cities. Utopianism and the (Un)Built Environment. Thames and Hudson, Inc., London. ISBN 0-500-34186-9. DOC101/12515. DOC3/225; DOC11/1452; DOC28/3967; DOC30/4157; DOC41/5466; DOC50/6360.

Fig. 547 (p. 673) – Map of Tenochtitlan from the collection of Ramusio (1556). BERNAL, Ignacio (1963). Mexico before Cortez: Art, History, Legend. Dolphin Books/Doubleday & Company, Inc., Garden City, New York. DOC96/11882.

Fig. 548 (p. 675) – Tenochtitlan in Benetto Bordones’ ‘Islario’ (Island Book), 1528. BRICKER, Charles (1969). De glorie van de cartografie. Een geïllustreerd overzicht van kaarten en kaartmakers (Landmarks of Mapmaking, 1968; Sequioia, Lausanne/transl J.G. Baggerman). Elsevier Nederland N.V., Amsterdam/Brussel. Source: Benedetto Bordone – Libro di Bebedetto Bordone nel quale si ragiona de tutta d’isole del mondo con liloro nomi antichi y moderni (Venice, 1528). HARDOY, Jorge E. (1964/1973). Op. cit. Also as fig. 4.20 (p. 89) in: KAGAN, Richard L. (2000). Op. cit. DOC25A/3501; DOC28/3967.

Fig. 549 (p. 676) – The round city of Jerusalem. From the manuscript ‘Historia Hierosolimitana’ by Robertus Monachus Remensis, twelfth century (pers comm. Ăsa Henningsson, 2008). Uppsala Universiteitsbibliotek, C 691, fl. LXXXVI; fig. 76 in: LOSITO, Maria (2003). Castel del Monte e la cultura arabo-normanna in Federico II. Mario Adda Editore, Bari. ISBN 88-8082-536-4. The Flemish map in the British Library (Add. MS 32343, fol. 15b) was given in the ‘Katalog Europa und der Orient: 800 – 1900’. 28/5 – 27/8/1989 Ausstellung des 4. Festivals der Weltkulturen. Horizonte ’89, Berlin. A redrawn version of the map in the Koninklijke Bibliotheek, The Hague (MS 69) is given in: JAMES, E.O. (1965). Jerusalem. A History. Paul Ham-lyn, London. Part of the original miniature is given in: BRADFORD, Ernle (1974). The Sword and the Scimitar. The Saga of the Crusades. Victor Gollancz Ltd., London. DOC97/11964-11965; DOC5/471 – 472. A good review of maps of Jerusalem can be found on the internet-site: http://maps-of-jerusalem.huji.ac.il/html/story.html

Fig. 550 (p. 677) – Templum of the sky. RYKWERT, Joseph (1976). The Idea of a Town. The Anthropology of Urban Form in Rome, Italy and the Ancient World. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey. ISBN 0-691-03901-1. Redrawn bij Marten Kuilman. DOC96/11924.

Fig. 551  (p. 679) – The CF-graph of the American cultural period. A proposal by the author based on the start of the communication cycle in 1492 and a First Visibility (FV) in 1776.

Fig. 552 (p. 680) – The Nebraska State Capitol. See: History of Nebraska’s Capitols. http://www.capitol.org/cont_spla.html Drawing: Copyright © 2003, Pytheos Chapter of Alpha Rho Chi.  Also as fig. 8.29 (more elaborated) in: ROTH, Leland M. (2001). American Architecture. A History. Icon Editions, Westview Press/Perseus Books Group; Boulder, Colorado/Oxford. ISBN 0-8133-3661-9.  Int146/19751; DOC107/13266; DOC98/12180. An aerial photograph is given as fig. 306 in: KOSTOF, Spiro (1991). The City Shaped. Urban Patterns and Meanings Through History. A Bullfinch Press Book/Little, Brown and Company. Boston, Toronto, London. ISBN 0-8212-1867-0. ‘Bertram Grosvenor Goodhue (1869-1924) practiced architecture in first Boston, and then New York City. His work is known for its unique combination of the best of historical forms, ornament, and detail with modern materials and forms. Goodhue is known for the Nebraska State Capitol and the Los Angeles County Public Library. Trinity English Lutheran Church (25107) is a fine example of Goodhue’s many Gothic churches’. http://www.cityoffortwayne.org/fort-wayne-architects-%26-firms.html

Fig. 553 (p. 681) – Foundation of various bastides in southwestern France. LAURET, Alain ; MALEBRANCHE, Raymond & SÉRAPHIN, Gilles (1988). Bastides. Villes nouvelles du Moyen-Age. Éditions & Communication Cahors, Éditions Milan, Toulouse. ISBN 2.86726.356.5. DOC97/12049.

Fig. 554 (p. 682) – The bastide of Solomiac (Gers, France). LAURET, Alain et al (1988). Op. cit. DOC97/12063.

Fig. 555 (p. 683) – The plan of Cologne (Armagnac, France). LAURET, Alain et al (1988). Op. cit. DOC97/12078.

Fig. 556 (p. 684) – The plan of Revel (Haute-Garonne, France). LAURET, Alain et al (1988). Op. cit. DOC97/12075.

Fig. 557 (p. 685) – The bastide of Creon (Gironde, Bordelais). LAURET, Alain et al (1988). Op. cit. DOC97/12079.

Fig. 558 (p. 685) – The castrum comitale of Damazan (Lot-et-Garonne). LAURET, Alain et al (1988). Op. cit. DOC97/12052.

Fig. 559 (p. 687) – Design for a city by the sea by Bernardo Vittone. Bernardo Antonio Vittone (August 19, 1704 – October 19, 1770) was an Italian architect and writer. HAGER, Helmut (1982). Architectural Fantasy and Reality. Drawings from the Accademia Nazionale di San Luca in Rome. Concorsi Clementini 1700 – 1750. Museum of Art. The Pennsylvania State University/ Cooper-Hewitt Museum/The Smithsonian Institution’s National Museum of Design, 1982. See also: BUSER, Richard (2006). Bernardo Vittone – Planen und Bauen im Piemont des 18. Jahrhunderts. Dissertation University of Fribourg. DOC25A/3495.

Fig. 560 (p. 689) – A plan of the city of Herat (Afghanistan). GANGLER, Anette; GAUBE, Heinz & PETRUCCIOLI, Attilio (2004). Bukhara. The Eastern Dome of Islam. Urban Development. Urban Space, Architecture and Population. Edition Axel Menges, Stuttgart/London. ISBN 3-932565-27-4. Another plan is given in: ARDALAN, Nader & BAKHTIAR, Laleh (1973). The Sense of Unity. The Sufi Tradition in Persian Architecture. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago/London. ISBN 0-226-02560-8.  Their source is: ENGLISH, P.W. (1970). The Traditional City of Herat, Afghanistan. Princeton Conference on Urban Planning in the Near East (1970). DOC91/after 1128.

Fig. 561 (p. 691) – Residential Zone of Mohenjo-Daro, a Harappan City in Pakistan. P.16, fig. 8 in: SMITH, Michael E. (2007). Form and Meaning in the Earliest Cities: A New Approach to Ancient Urban Planning. Pp 3 – 47 in: Journal of Planning History, Vol. 6, No. 1, February 2007. Int189/25566.

Fig. 562 (p. 692) – The plan of the ideal city of Wang-Ch’eng. Henan zhi as preserved in Yongle dadian, juan 9561. Fig. 27 in: STEINHARDT, Nancy S. (1990). Chinese Imperial City Planning. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu. ISBN 0-8248-1244-1. See for a different plan of Wangcheng fig. 28 in the same book. DOC98/12086 – 12087.

Fig. 563 (p. 693) – The modern city of Xi’an (Shaanxi province, China). SCHINZ, Alfred (1989). Cities in China (Urbanization of the Earth 7; TIETZE, Wolf, Ed. Gebrüder Borntraeger, Berlin/Stuttgart. ISBN 3-443-37009-8. DOC91/11245.

Fig. 564 (p.694) – A reconstruction of the city of Xi’an. DREGE, J.P. (1986/1988). De Zijderoute: 20 eeuwen handelswegen tussen hina en Europa (Die Seidenstrasse, Motovon Schweiz Verlagsgesellschaft AG., Luzern/VGS, Keulen; La route de la soie: Payages et legendes. La Bibliotheque des Arts, Parijs. ISBN 90-6097-244-9. An explanation of the map can be found in: WOOD, Michael (1992). Legacy, a search for the origins of civilization. BBC Books, London. A Chinese plan of the city is given as Plate 3 in: GALANTAY, Ervin Y. (1979). New Towns: Antiquity to the Present. George Braziller, New York. ISBN 0-8076-0766-5. DOC26/3787; DOC29/4085; DOC94/11650.

Fig. 565 (p. 695) – Heianko (Kyoto), AD 784. FRAMPTON, Kenneth (1969). Labour, Work & Architecture. Pp. 151 –168 in: JENCKS, Charles & BAIRD, George (1969). Meaning in Architecture. Barrie & Rockliff. The Crescent Press. SBN 214.66797.9. It is likely – if the given date is correct – that the illustration is a represen-tation of the city of Nara rather than Heiankyo (Kyoto), because the new capital started in 794 AD. The original source of this illustration could not be traced to decide this item. The spelling as ‘Heianko’ should read ‘Heiankyo’. A better description (Heijo-kyo, Nara (ca. 710 – 784) and a more detailed plan is given as fig. 97 in: STEINHARDT, Nancy S. (1990). Chinese Imperial City Planning. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu. ISBN 0-8248-1244-1. DOC76/9155; DOC98/12089.

Fig. 566 (p. 696) – Two ancient schemes for imperial capitals in China. Fig. 174/175 in: KOSTOF, Spiro (1991). The City Shaped. Urban Patterns and Meanings Through History. A Bulfinch Press Book/Little, Brown and Company, Boston/Toronto/London. ISBN 0-8212-1867-0. DOC98/12168.

Fig. 567 (p. 697) – Design for the imperial palace by Fischer von Erlach, 1721. KRUFT, Hanno-Walter (1985/1994). A History of Architectural Theory from Vitruvius to the Present. Zwemmer/Princeton Architectural Press, New York ISBN 0 0302 00603 6. See for the source of this picture as HA 3, Tafel XI: ‘Die Kaiserburg zu Peking’ in: KUNOTH, George (1956). Die Historische Architektur Fischers von Erlach. Verlag L. Schwann, Düsseldorf. This illustration – from Johann Neuhof’s ‘Gezandtschap der neerlandtsche oost-Indische Compagnie (1670) – was also used by: PENNICK, Nigel (1979). The Ancient Science of Geomancy. Man in harmony with the earth. Thames and Hudson Ltd., London. DOC30/4174; DOC87/10605; DOC41/5448.

Fig. 568 (p. 698) – The various stages of the capital Beijing. Fig. 19 in: STEINHARDT, Nancy S. (1990). Chinese Imperial City Planning. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu. ISBN 0-8248-1244-1. DOC98/12085.

Fig. 569 (p. 699) – The city plan of Luliang (Yunnan Province). Fig. 248 in: SCHINZ, Alfred (1989). Cities in China (Urbanization of the Earth 7; TIETZE, Wolf, Ed. Gebrüder Borntraeger, Berlin/Stuttgart. ISBN 3-443-37009-8. DOC91/11254.

Fig. 570 (p. 700) – Kaiyuan in the Liaoning Province, a county town east of Kumming. Fig. 344 in: SCHINZ, Alfred (1989). Op. cit. DOC91/11259.

Fig. 571 (p. 701). Shenyang, capital of Liaoing Province. SCHINZ, Alfred (1989). Op. cit.
DOC91/11257.

Fig. 572 (p. 702) – A selection of Chinese Walled Cities. KNAPP, Ronald G. (2000). China’s Walled Cities. Images of Asia Series, Oxford University Press, Hong Kong. ISBN 0-19-590605-5. A book review by Kawasaki Yūzō is given in JSTOR: Asian Folklore Studies, Vol. 62, No. 1 (2003), pp. 172 – 174. The given illustrations are from an earlier edition of this book: WALLACKER, Benjamin E.; KNAPP, Ronald G.; van ALSTYNE, Arthur J. & SMITH, Richard J. (Ed.) (1979). Chinese Walled Cities: A Collection of Maps from Shina Jokaku to Gaiyo. The Chinese University of Hong Kong Press. ISBN 962-201-174-8  See also: TURNBULL, Stephen (2009). Chinese Walled Cities 221 BC – AD 1644. Osprey Publishing Limited, Oxford/New York. ISBN 978-184603-381-0. DOC76/9129.

Fig. 573 (p. 703) – The cities of Feng-Yang-Fu and Feng-yang-hsien, some 105 kilometres southeast of Meng-ch’eng. WALLACKER, Benjamin E. et al (Ed.) (1979). Op. cit. Also in a different setting in: SCHINZ, Alfred (1989). Op. cit. DOC76/9146. DOC91/11253.

Fig. 574 (p. 704) – Josua and the city of Jericho. Syriac Ms. 16, fol. 118r. John Rylands University Library. Fig. 230 in: KERN, Hermann (1982). Labyrinthe: Erscheinungsformen und Deutungen; 5000 Jahre Gegenwart eines Urbildes. Prestel-Verlag. ISBN 3-7913-0614-6. DOC24/3423.

Fig. 575 (p. 705) – Plans of pagan earthwork precincts or sanctuaries. ROSS, Anne (1970/1986). The pagan Celts. B.T. Batsford Ltd., London. ISBN 0 7134 5527 6. DOC30/4260.

Fig. 576 (p. 705) – Some examples of Viereckschanzen (VES) in Germany. Upper left: Hardheim-Gerichstetten, Neckar-Odenwald (fig. 45); upper right: Altheim-Heiligkreuztal (fig. 39); lower left: Esslingen-Oberesslingen, Kr. Esslingen (fig. 41); lower right: Pliezhausen-Rübgarten, Kr. Reutlingen (fig. 40) in: WIELAND, Günther (1999). Keltische Viereckschanzen. Einem Rätsel auf der Spur. Theiss, Stuttgart. ISBN 3-8062-1387-9. DOC75/8982 – 8985.

Fig. 577 (p. 706) – Reconstruction of a quadratic building in Bopfingen (Germany). Fig. 9 in: WIELAND, Günther (1999). Op. cit. DOC75/8973.

Fig. 578  (p. 707) –  Map of Dax, France, example of a square-walled city. HIGOUET, Charles (1973). Histoire de l’Aquitane. Les enceintes tetrar-chiques et les villes retranchees du Bas-Empire. Université de la France. Privat, Editeur, Toulouse. DOC12/1633.

Fig. 579 (p. 708) – Design for the Hugenots city Onaltzbach (Ansbach). Georg Andreas Böckler (1686), Nürnberg Statsarchiv. Fig. 73 in: KRUFT, Hanno-Walter (1989). Städte in Utopia – Die Idealstadt vom 15. bis zum 18. Jahrhundred zwischen Staatsutopie und Wirklichkeit. Verlag C.H. Beck, München. ISBN 3 406 33909 3. DOC73/8796.

Fig. 580 (p. 709) – A city map of Ansbach (Onoltzbach) by J.G. Puschner and published by Johann Jacob Endress in Schwabach, 1740. http://www.garwood-voigt.com/catalogues/germany.htm Int195/26482; Int195/26480. A  similar map (colored copper engraving) in the Sächsische Landes-bibliothek (Staats- und Universitätsbibliothek Dresden, Kartensammlung, Inv. Nr SLUB/KS A17308) has the same references as above, but it differs slightly, since a starlike southern extension to the Hopfgarten is given. Therefore this map must be of a later version (date) then the one given above. Deutsche Fotothek, Nr df_dk_0002431. http://www.deutschefotothek.de/obj70302315.html

Fig. 581 (p. 710) – Bird’s-eye view of a design for the project Cidade dos Motores in Brazil, 1943. Paul Lester Wiener and Jose Luis Sert, architects. Fig. 234 in: ARONIN, Jeffrey E. (1953). Climate & Architecture. Progressive Architec-ture Book. Reinhold Publishing Corporation, New York. LCCCN 53-9171.  From a different angle, Pl. 1.3 in : BOYD WHYTE, Iain (2003). Modernism and the Spirit of the City. Routledge, London. ISBN 0-415-25840-5. DOC98/12121; DOC102/12601.

Fig. 582 (p. 712) – The plan of Hotep Senusret (Kahun) after a map by W.M. Flinders Petrie. Given in: http://www.cartage.org.lb/en/themes/Arts/Architec/AncientArchitectural/EgyptianArchitecture/BuildinginancientEgypt/Town/Town.htm or: http://www.reshafim.org.il/ad/egypt/building/senusrethotep.htm  Another map of the city can be found in: http://www.aldokkan.com/geography/kahun.htm  See also p. 140, fig 36 in: GRAJETZKI, Wolfram (2006). The Middle Kingdom of Ancient Egypt. History, Archaeology and Society. Gerald Duckworth & Co., Ltd., London. ISBN 0 7156 3435 6. Also described as ‘Plan of Hotep Sesostris, 1890 BC’. Fig. 55 in: GALANTAY, Ervin Y. (1979). New Towns: Antiquity to the Present. George Braziller, New York. ISBN 0-8076-0766-5. And as : ‘Kahoun; 1897 – 1879 av JC’ 1. (left part) ghetto des esclaves ; 2. (lower open space) cité des fonctionaires ; 3. (upper lower space) palais du pharaon. In: LAURET, Alain ; MALEBRANCHE, Raymond & SÉRAPHIN, Gilles (1988). Bastides. Villes nouvelles du Moyen-Age. Éditions & Communication Cahors, Éditions Milan, Toulouse. ISBN 2.86726.356.5. Int187/26712; DOC95/11691; DOC97/12067; DOC197/26712 – 26715.

Fig. 583 (p. 713) – The worker’s settlement of Akhetaten (New Kingdom).  Int197/26696 – 26706; Int197/26707 – 26711; Int197/26737. After W.M. Flinders Petrie: http://www.cartage.org.lb/en/themes/Arts/Architec/AncientArchitectural/EgyptianArchitecture/BuildinginancientEgypt/Town/Town.htm  or  http://www.terraflex.co.il/ad/egypt/building/amarna.gif

Fig. 584 (p. 714) – The CF-graph of the Egyptian cultural period with the position of some orthogonal grid towns. Marten Kuilman, 2008.

Fig. 585 (p. 715) – Cadmus fighting the dragon. Museum Collection Musee du Louvre, Paris (France). Catalogue No.  Louvre Ca1860. Int199/26917. Attributed to the Horsemen Painter, ca. 550 – 540 BC. Ancient Greek Art : Cadmus & the Dragon. http://www.theoi.com/Gallery/M28.3.html  Another ‘Kadmos and the dragon’ on a krater attributed to the Python painter, 3260 – 340 BC is also in the Louvre Museum. The snake is here climbing a pile of rocks. Int46/6198. ©2000 Ellen Papakyriakou/Anagnostou. http://www.sikyon.com/Thebes/kadmosdr_eg.html The theme of a snake curling around a pillar was given in a sixteenth-century manuscript of a commentary on Richard Swineshead’s ‘Liber calculationum’. The illustration functioned as part of a mathematical argu-ment on the infinite and the continuous. In Aristotle’s view there were no ‘actual’ infinities, but only those in a potentially infinite divisibility of a continuous magnitude. If a spiral was to be described on the surface of a cylinder (the snake), which is divided in proportional parts ad infinitum, then the spiral line would potentially be infinite in length. This infinite linea girativa is given in Swineshead’s illustration. See fig. 255 in: MURDOCH, John E. (1984). Album of Science. Antiquity and Middle Ages. Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York. ISBN 0-684-15496-X. The English scholar John Buridan (ca. 1300-1362) dealt with the same problems in his ‘Tractatus de Infinito’. He repeated the argument – put forwards in Aristotle’s Metaphysics that it is impossible for the infinite to be grasped by the finite (power). Buridan was convinced that God could not take all the parts (omnes) of the cylinder, since there would never be a last one (proportional part of the cylinder) (THIJSSEN & ZUPKO, 2001). The historical-philosophical component of the above-given problems is, in quadralectic terms, to be compared with a discovery of the nature of the First Quadrant, the area of invisible invisibility in a communication. The fact that the snake also doubles as a symbol of (female) evil, intruding as a spiral in the area of the infinite, which could not even reached by God, makes the illustration even more powerful and intriguing. A (re)drawing by Marten Kuilman. DOC41/5414.

Fig. 586 (p. 717) – Zernaki Tepe: grid plan site (8th – 7th cent. B.C.). FLETCHER, Banister (1975). A History of Architecture (revised by J.C. Palmer). The Athlone Press, University of London, London. ISBN 0 485 55001 6. DOC95/11708.

Fig. 587 (p. 718) – Miletus (Hippodamia). Stand 1999. After A. von Gerkan – B.F. Weber. http://www.ruhr-uni-bochum.de/milet/in/stadt-plan/stadt-pl.jpg  p. 153 in: FRAMPTON, Kenneth (1969). Labour, Work & Architecture. Pp. 151 – 168 in: JENCKS, Charles & BAIRD, George (1969). Meaning in Architecture. Barrie & Rockliff, The Cresset Press. SBN 214.66797.9. DOC76/9152. Fig. 2 (after von Gerkan) in: CASTAGNOLI, Ferdinando (1971). Orthogonal Town Planning in Antiquity. The MIT Press, Cambridge, and London, England. ISBN 0 262 03042. DOC97/12015. Fig. 347 in: DOXIADIS, Constantinos A. (1968). Ekistics. An Introduction to the Science of Human Settlements. Hutchinson of London. 09 080300 0. DOC98/12108. In an early stage of excavation (Wiegand, 1911). Fig. 9 in: HAVERFIELD, F. (1913). Ancient Town-Planning. At the Clarendon Press, Oxford. DOC100/12392. Int197/26684; Int108/14546; Int108/14551 – 14555

Fig. 588 (p. 719) – Plan of the lower city of Priene constructed according to Hoefner & Schwandner, 1986. Drawn by Miriam Tuchman, Neil Garrioch and Michael Lok. Sources: Wiegand & Schrader, 1904. http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/image?lookup=AC1001 An outline of Priene (after Zippelius) as fig. 6 in: HAVERFIELD, F. (1913). Op. cit. Int197/26658.

Fig. 589 (p. 720) – Alexander uses a grid design for the layout of the Egyptian city of Alexandria. Painting by Andre Castaigne (1898/99), published as part of a series of more then thirty-six drawings and paintings about the deeds of Alexander the Great in The Century (November 1898 through October 1899) in: Michael Lahanas – Town (or Urban) Planning in Ancient Greece: http://www.mlahanas.de/Greeks/CityPlan.htm  Illustration as: http://www.mlahanas.de/Greeks/Cities/AlexanderAlexandria.jpg  Int197/26690 – 26695. Background information on Andre Castaigne (1861 – 1929) is given by Jim Vadeboncoeur, Jr. (2000), also on the Internet: http://ww.bpib.com/illustrat/castaign.htm

Fig. 590 (p. 721) – The city of Dura-Europos (Goodenough). SAALMAN, Howard (1968). Medieval Cities. George Brazieller, Inc., New York. A simplified map, according to A. Detweiler (1935), is given in: M.I. ROSTOVTZEFF (1944) – The Excavations at Dura Europos, 9th Season, New Haven. P. 110 in: KLENGEL, Horst (1971). Syria Antiqua. Edition Leipzig. And fig. 31 in: CASTAGNOLI, Ferdinando (1971). Op. cit. DOC56/6977;  DOC56/7006; DOC29/12034.

Fig. 591 (p. 722) – The CF-graph of the Greek cultural history by Marten Kuilman. The visible visibility period (X) starts in 900 BC and ends in the Hellenistic Period in 150 (146) BC.

Fig. 592 (p. 723) – Marzabotto. GATES, Charles (2003). Ancient Cities. The archaeology of urban life in the Ancient Near East and Egypt, Greece and Rome. Routledge, London. ISBN 0-415-01895. An older map can be found as fig. 12 in: HAVERFIELD, F. (1913). Op. cit. DOC100/12436; DOC100/12395.

Fig. 593 (p. 724) – The city of Cosa, founded in 273 BC.  GATES, Charles (2003). Op. cit. A map, with less detail, was given as fig. 109 in: KOSTOF, Spiro (1991). The City Shaped. Urban Patterns and Meanings Through History. A Bullfinch Press Book/Little, Brown and Company. Boston, Toronto, London. ISBN 0-8212-1867-0. He noted that ‘Cosa’s layout was an ingenious compromise between the rigorous topography of a defense site and the advantages of an orthogonal street plan.’ DOC100/12438.

Fig. 594 (p. 725) – Numantia. Plan of the excavations. Fig. 189 in: GUTKIND, E.A. (1967). Urban Development in Southern Europe: Spain and Portugal. International History of City Development, Vol. III. The Free Press, New York/Collier-Macmillan Limited, London.  LCCCN 64-13231. A fanciful (circular) interpretation was given in an engraving by Lipsius (after Joest Lips, a Belgian scholar living from 1547 – 1606). Fig. 190: GUTKIND, E.A. (1967). Op. cit. DOC100/12348.

Fig. 595 (p. 726) – The city layout of Turin (1844). GUTKIND, E.A. (1967). Op. cit.
DOC100/12398.

Fig. 596 (p. 727) – The city of Timgad in Algeria. GERKAN, von, Armin (1939). Kolonialstädte der Antike. Aus: Die Kunst im Dritten Reich. Pp. 279 – 283 in: BOEHRINGER, Erich (Ed.) (1959). Von Antiker Architektur und Topographie. Gesammelte Aufsätze von Armin von Gerkan. W. Kohlhammer Verlag GmbH., Stuttgart. Plan of Timgad. C. 100 AD. p. 5 in: GALANTAY, Ervin Y. (1979). New Towns: Antiquity to the Present. George Braziller, New York. ISBN 0-8076-0766-5. DOC94/11643. Plan of Timgad. Fig. 22 in: HAVERFIELD, F. (1913). Op. cit. DOC100/12404. Fig. 88 in: NORBERG-SCHULZ, Christian (1974). Meaning in Western Architecture. Studio Vista/Electa Editrice, Milano/Praeger Publications, Inc. ISBN 0 289 705699.  DOC26/3618; DOC104/12947b.

Fig. 597 (p. 728) – The CF-graph of the Roman cultural history with the positions of grid cities by Marten Kuilman.

Fig. 598 (p. 729) – The fortified settlement of Biskupin (Poland). KUCKENBURG, Martin (2000). Von Steinzeitlager zur Keltenstadt. Siedlungen der Vorgeschichte in Deutschland. Konrad Theiss Verlag GmbH, Stuttgart. ISBN 3-8062-1446-8. DOC101/12455.

Fig. 599 (p. 730) – Plan of Villarreal, Castellon. Fig. 213 in: GUTKIND, E.A. (1967). Urban Development in Southern Europe: Spain and Portugal. International History of City Development, Vol. III. The Free Press, New York/Collier-Macmillan Limited, London.  LCCCN 64-13231. DOC100/12357.

Fig. 600 (p. 731) – Aerial photo of Santa Fe (Spain) in 1958. GALANTAY, Ervin Y. (1979). New Towns: Antiquity to the Present. George Braziller, New York. ISBN 0-8076-0766-5. The illustration as given in the book has an upside down orientation with the northern direction towards the bottom, but is here corrected. An old plan of Santa Fe is given as fig. 219 in: GUTKIND, E.A. (1967). Op. cit. DOC95/11686; DOC100/12362.

Fig. 601 (p. 732) – Second design for La Valletta by Francesco Laparelli (1566). Codex Laparelli, Florence. Collection Laparelli-Pitti. KRUFT, Hanno-Walter (1989). Städte in Utopia – Die Idealstadt vom 15. bis zum 18. Jahrhundert zwischen Staatsutopie und Wirklichkeit. Verlag C.H. Beck, München. ISBN 3 406 33909. The picture as given by Kruft (and the original?) was upside down. The plan as given here has north to the top. DOC73/8786.

Fig. 602  (p. 733) – Ideal port city plan by Simon Stevin (1590). Fig. 114 in: KOSTOF, Spiro (1991). The City Shaped: Urban Patterns and Meanings Through History. A Bullfinch Press Book/Little, Brown and Company. Boston, Toronto, London. ISBN 0-8212-1867-0. Given as ‘Simon Stevin, ideal plan for new town, 1649’, Plate 40 in: GALANTAY, Ervin Y. (1979). New Towns: Antiquity to the Present. George Braziller, New York. ISBN 0-8076-0766-5. DOC98/12160; DOC94/11677.

Fig. 603 (p. 734) – A plan of the Watergraafsmeer or Diemermeer as given by Mattheus Brouërius van Niedek in his book ‘Het Verheerlykt Watergraefs of Diemermeer’, Amsterdam (1721). KISTEMAKER, Renee; KOPANEVA, Natalja & OVERBEEK, Annemiek (1996). Peter de Grote en Holland. Culturele en wetenschappelijke betrekkingen tussen Rusland en Nederland ten tijde van tzaar Peter de Grote. Uitgeverij THOTH, Bussum/Amsterdams Historisch Museum. ISBN 90-6868-156-7. DOC43/5570.

Fig. 604 (p. 734) – The plan of Batavia. GALANTAY, Ervin Y. (1979). New Towns: Antiquity to the Present. George Braziler, New York ISBN 0-8076-0766-5. This map showed the situation in 1619 (according to Galantay), but the  map refers to R & I Ottens ‘Afbeeldinge van ‘t Casteel en de Stadt Batavia, gelegen op ‘t groot Eylandt Iava-Maior, int Conincrijck van Iaccatra (printed in many editions between 1629 – 1750). The map  in Johann Wolfgang Heijdt’s ‘Allerneuester Geographische- und Topographischer Schauplatz, von Africa und Ost-Indien (1740) continued the tradition of this map in a slightly different form. DOC94/11676. The old maps of Batavia (and other places) can also be found on the website of the Atlas of Mutual Heritage (AMH) project of the Nationaal Archief of the Netherlands: http://www.nationaalarchief.nl/amh

Fig. 605 (p. 735) – Copper engraving of Mannheim (1758). FIRSCHING, Jens & LIEDKE, Walter (Ed.) (1994). Streifzüge durch das historische Deutschland. Der grosse ADAC Reise- und Freizeitführer. ADAC Verlag, Stuttgart/Verlag Das Beste GmbH., Stuttgart. ISBN 3-87003-321-5. A plan of Mannheim (1799) – with the quadrant numbers – is given as Pl. XXV in: COLLINS, George R. & CRASEMANN COLLINS, Christiane (1986). Camillo Sitte: The Birth of Modern City Planning. Rizzoli International Publications, Inc. New York. ISBN 0-8478-0556-5. DOC47/5969; DOC84/10188.

Fig. 606 (p. 736) – Plano General Barcelona, 1877. Plan Cerda, approved in 1859. Fig. 261 in: GUTKIND, E.A. (1967). Urban Development in Southern Europe: Spain and Portugal. International History of City Development, Vol. III. The Free Press, New York/Collier-Macmillan Limited, London.  LCCCN 64-13231. DOC100/12365. A plan by Ildefonso Cerda, 1858. Fig. 152 in: KOSTOF, Spiro (1991). The City Shaped. Urban Patterns and Meanings Through History. A Bullfinch Press Book/Little, Brown and Company. Boston, Toronto, London. ISBN 0-8212-1867-0. DOC98/12163.

Fig. 607 (p. 737) – The European cultural history with the position of grid towns. Marten Kuilman, Sept. 2008. For the initial mentioning of the European CF-graph see p. 332, fig. 267 and p. 340, fig. 274. The start of the communication cycle (V) is projected in the year 1 and the (visible) visibility area X started in the year 750 AD.

Fig. 608 (p. 738) – The city center of Annapolis (Maryland). Entertainment – Tour Annapolis – HometownAnnapolis.com ©2008 Capital Gazette Communications, Inc. Int202/27364.

Fig. 609 (p. 739) – City plan of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, one of the earliest grid-cities in America (1682). Laid out by Thomas Holme according to instructions from William Penn. Fig. 5.11 in: CONZEN, Michael P. (1990). The Making of the American Landscape. Unwin Hyman, Boston. ISBN 0-04-917009-0 also p. 92 of: EATON, Ruth (2001). Ideal Cities. Utopianism and the (Un) Built Environ-ment. Thames and Hudson, London. ISBN 0-500-34186-9 also fig. 2.40 in: ROTH, Leland M. (2001). American Architecture. A History. Icon Editions, Westview Press/Perseus Books Group; Boulder, Colorado/Oxford. ISBN 0-8133-3661-9. DOC78/9454; DOC101/12537; DOC107/13237.

Fig. 610 (p. 740) – A plan for the Margravate of Azilia, Georgia (1717). Fig. 77 in: REPS, John W. (1965/1969). Town Planning in Frontier America. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey. LCCN 68-20877 and p. 86 in: EATON, Ruth (2001). Op. cit.
DOC75/9082.

Fig. 611 (p. 741) – Map of Savannah, Georgia and vicinity. Ca. 1800. Fig. 79 in: REPS, John W. (1965/1969). Op. cit. View of Savannah, Georgia, 1739. Plate 50a in: GALANTAY, Ervin Y. (1979). New Towns: Antiquity to the Present. George Braziller, New York. ISBN 0-8076-0766-5. DOC95/11688. A map of the County of Savannah in: Samuel Urlsperger (1735). Ausführliche Nachricht von den Saltsburgischen Emigranten (Halle). John Carte Brown Library, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island. EATON, Ruth (2001). Ideal Cities. Utopianism and the (Un) Built Environment. Thames and Hudson Ltd., London. ISBN 0-500-34186-9. DOC101/12535. James Oglethorpe, Savannah, Georgia, 1733. A View of Savannah As It Stood the 29th of March 1734 (London, 1734). Fig. 3.1a in: ROTH, Leland M. (2001). Op. cit. DOC107/13238. DOC75/9083.

Fig. 612 (p. 742) – Plan of Franklinville. Fig. 89 in: REPS, John W. (1965/1969). Op. cit.
DOC75/9084.

Fig. 613 (p. 743) – Plan of Lystra, Kentucky,1796; fig. 89 in: REPS, John W. (1965/1969). Op. cit. DOC75/9085; Int106/14322 – 14323.

Fig. 614 (p. 744) – Plan of Washington DC. Int168/22788; Int203/27490 – 27514; DOC70/8323. An overview of the planning mapping history (1791 – 1800) of Washington DC can be found on: http://www.geocities.com/jussaymoe/maps/map_images.htm

Fig. 615 (p. 745) – Grid of New York. http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e6/Grid_1811.jpg/100px-Grid_1811.jpg

Fig. 616 (p. 746) – Redrawn plan of Zion City. An instruction map sent by Joseph Smith – founder of the Mormons – to a group of followers in Independence, Missouri. The city was never built. Fig. 133 in: REPS, John W. (1965/1969). Op.cit.  The original map is given in: EATON, Ruth (2001). Op. cit.  The Mormon prototype town plan: Zion, Missouri, 1833. Fig. 11.3 in: CONZEN, Michael P. (1990). The Making of the American Landscape. Unwin Hyman, Boston. ISBN 0-04-917009-0. DOC78/9460. DOC75/9095; DOC101/12538.

Fig. 617 (p. 747) – A view of Salt Lake City, 1870. fig. 135 in: REPS, John W. (1965/1969). Op. cit. DOC75/9096.

Fig. 618 (p. 749) – The central area of Houston (Texas) in 1963. Fig. 161 in: DOXIADIS, Constantinos A. (1968). Ekistics. An Introduction to the Science of Human Settlements. Hutchinson of London. 09 080300 0. DOC98/12101.

Fig. 619 (p. 750) – American cultural period with the positions of the major concentrations of grid cities by Marten Kuilman.

Fig. 620 (p. 752) – The city plan of Lima, 1683. Plate 45 in: GALANTAY, Ervin Y. (1979). Op. cit. DOC94/11683.

Fig. 621 (p. 753) – The city map of Cuzco, 1597. Cusco Regni Peru In Novo Orbe Caiut. Engraving from G. Braun and F. Hogenberg (1572). Civitates orbis terrarum. Biblioteca Nacional, Madrid. Admitted to Antoine Du Pinet, 1564, after a plan in G.B. Ramusio, Navegationi, vol. III, 1556. HARDOY, Jorge E. (1964/1973). Pre-Columbian Cities. George Allen& Unwin Ltd., London. ISBN 0-04-722001-5. DOC28/3970. Same map, from a survey by E.G. Squire, c. 1860. Int204/27626. Cuzco was likened to a puma, a symbol of strength and power. P. 274 in: FORTE, Maurizio & SILIOTTI, Alberto (Ed.) (1996). Virtual Archaeology. Great Discoveries Brought to Life Through Virtual Reality. Thames and Hudson. Arnoldo Mondadori editore, Milan. ISBN 0-500-05085-6. DOC50/6363; Int188/25491; Int205/27699.

Fig. 622 (p. 754) – Santiago de Chile. Fig. 4.14 in: KAGAN, Richard L. (2000). Urban Images of the Hispanic World 1493 – 1793. Yale University Press, New Haven/London. ISBN 0-300-08314-9. DOC97/11991.

Fig. 623 (p. 755) – Stamp of Aarao Reis (1853 – 1936). http://www.danstopicals.com/belohorizonte.htm  A plan of the grid map can be seen in: GALANTAY, Ervin Y. (1979). New Towns: Antiquity to the Present. George Braziler, New York. ISBN 0-8076-0766-5. Int205/27735; DOC94/11667. See also: http://www.siaapm.cultura.mg.gov.br   and http://pupilavirtual.blogspot.com/2009/08/aarao-leal-de-carvalho-reis.html

Fig. 624 (p. 758) – The interpretation of the various three divisions as given by Plato in his book ‘The Republic’ (M. Kuilman).

Fig. 625 (p. 759) – La ville idéale of Francesco Eiximenic. LAURET, Alain; MALEBRANCHE, Raymond & SÉRAPHIN, Gilles (1988). Bastides. Villes nouvelles du Moyen-Age. Éditions & Communication Cahors, Éditions Milan, Toulouse. ISBN 2.86726.356.5. DOC97/12061.

Fig. 626 (p. 761) – The main trends of ideal city conceptions. Fig. 6 in: The Ideal City or The Varieties of Metasocial Experience: A Typology. Chapter III (pp. 74 – 148) in: NIEUWENHUIJZE, van, C.A.O. (1966). The Nation and the Ideal City. Three Studies in Social Identity. Mouton & Co., The Hague/Paris. DOC66/after 7907.

Fig. 627 (p. 762) – A diagram of pragmatist approaches to the ideal city. Fig. 7 in: NIEUWENHUIJZE, van, C.A.O. (1966). Op. cit. DOC66/after 7907.

Fig. 628 (p. 764) – Some socio-historical philosophies. Fig. 8 in: NIEUWENHUIJZE, van, C.A.O. (1966). Op. cit. DOC66/after 7907.

Fig. 629 (p. 766) – The ideal approaches between the  phenomenal and ideal city. Fig. 9 in: NIEUWENHUIJZE, van, C.A.O. (1966). Op. cit. DOC66/after 7907.

Fig. 630 (p. 766) – Left : A map of Bororo village; Right : The village of Tumbang Lahang. P. 113 and p. 114 in: NIEUWENHUIJZE, van, C.A.O. (1966). Op. cit. DOC66/after 7907.

Fig. 631 (p. 768) – The position of the new city from a builders point of view. Fig. 10 in: NIEUWENHUIJZE, van, C.A.O. (1966). Op. cit. DOC66/after 7907.

Fig. 632 (p. 769) – The fourfold analysis of the City completed. WELTER, Volker (2002). Biopolis: Patrick Geddes and the City of Light. MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass. ISBN 0-262-23211-1. DOC76/9169.

Fig. 633 (p. 770) – A comparison of the Town-City and Act-Deed formulas by Patrick Geddes. WELTER (2002). Op. cit. DOC76/9170.

Fig. 634 (p. 771) – The competition sketches of Lucio Costa of the Master Plan of Brasilia. HOLSTON, James (1989). The Modernist City. An Anthropological Critique of Brasilia. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago and London. ISBN 0-226-34978-0. DOC99/12216.

Fig. 635 (p. 772) – The plan of Brasilia by Lucio Costa, 1956. EVENSON, Norma (1974). Le Corbusier: The Machine and the Grand Design. Studio Vista, London. George Braziler, Inc., New York. SNB 289 79746 2   A slightly different plan in: LAMPUGNANI, Vittorio M. (Ed.) (1983). The Thames and Hudson Encyclopaedia of 20th-Century Architecture. Droemersche Verlaganstalt/Th. Knauf Nachf. München and Zurich/Thames and Hudson, London. And as Map 5.2: Sectoral organization and traffic plan of the Plano Piloto, 1980 in: HOLSTON, James (1989). Op. cit.  And as: FRASER, Valerie (2003). Brasilia, a national capital without a national museum. Pp. 183 – 205 in: GIEBELSHAUSEN, Michaela (ed.) (2003). The architecture of the museum. Symbolic structures, urban contexts. Manchester University Press, Man-chester and New York. ISBN 0 7190 5609 8. DOC85/10404; DOC82/9988; DOC89/10981.

Fig. 636 (p. 775) – The Masterplan of Chandigarh by Albert Mayer. Original Master Plan by Albert Mayer, 1950. Plate 24 in: GALANTAY, Ervin Y. (1979). New Towns: Antiquity to the Present. George Braziller, New York. ISBN 0-8076-0766-5. DOC94/11669.

Fig. 637 (p. 776) – The city of Chandigarh. CORBUSIER, Le (1923/1958). Vers une architecture. Editions Vincent, Freal & Cie, Paris. DOC64/7725; DOC70/8302.

Fig. 638 (p. 777) – The rear side of the Legislative Assembly Hall  in Chandigarh. Le Corbusier, 1956-1959. EVENSON, Norma (1974). Op. cit. And fig. 519 – 521 in: NORBERG-SCHULZ, Christian (1974). Meaning in Western Architecture. Studio Vista/Electa Ed., Milano/Praeger Publ., Inc. ISBN 0 289 705699 X. DOC85/10403; DOC105/12983.

Fig. 639 (p. 778) –  The ‘Breathing Wall’. Officina de Planificacion y Vivien-da, Caracas, Venuzula. Fig. 213 in : ARONIN, Jeffrey E. (1953). Climate & Architecture. Progressive Architec-ture Book. Reinhold Publishing Corporation, New York. LCCCN 53-9171. DOC98/12114. The concept is still in the center of attention, as is proven by: OTITOOLA, Olufikaya (2005). Breathing Wall: a modernist architectural heritage. ArchiAfrika Conference Proceedings: Modern Architecture in East Africa around Independence. ArchNet – Digital Library. http://archnet.org/library/documents/one-document.jsp?document_id=9950

Fig. 640 (p.779) – Griffin’s design of the central part of Canberra (1911). FISCHER, K.F. (1984). Canberra: Myths and Models. Forces at work in the formation of the Australian capital. Institute of Asian Affairs, Hamburg 1984. ISBN 3-88910-009-0. Maps of Walter Burley Griffin’s prizewinning plan are given in: HALL, Peter (1988). Cities of Tomorrow. An Intellectual History of Urban Planning and Design in the Twentieth Centuiry. Basil Blackwell, Oxford. ISBN 0-631-13444-1 and GALANTAY, Ervin Y. (1979). Op. cit. DOC101/12563;  DOC85/10386;  DOC94/11662 – 11665.

Fig. 641 (p. 782) – Masterplan of St Petersburg by Le Blond, 1716. Map 3: BATER, James H. (1980) – The Soviet City. Ideal and Reality. Explorations inn Urban Analysis. Sage Publications Inc, Beverley Hills, CA – Edward Arnold (Publishers) Ltd., London. ISBN 0-7131-6165-5. DOC101/12553.

Fig. 642 (p. 783) – Examples of early Russian town planning. Map 4 in: BATER, James H. (1980). Op. cit. DOC101/12554.

Fig. 643 (p. 784) – The Spanish linear city, 1882. Fig. 22 in: MILIUTIN, N.A. (1930/1974) . Sotsgorod. The Problem of Building Socialist Cities (transl. by Arthur Sprague). The Massachusetts Institute of Technology. ISBN 0-262-13089-0. DOC102/12580; DOC66/after 7908; DOC105/12975. See also p. 58, Fig. 4.2 in: MORRIS, Eleanor Smith (1997). British town planning and urban design. Addison Wesley Longman Limited, Harlow, England. ISBN 0-582-23496-4. For a wider geographical view of Soria y Mata’s linear city, see fig. 411 in: NORBERG-SCHULZ, Christian (1974). Meaning in Western Architecture. Studio Vista/Electa Editrice, Milano/Praeger Publications, Inc. ISBN 0 289 705699 X

Fig. 644 (p. 785) – A plan of Ciudad Lineal in Madrid. The Ideal Community: Alternatives to the Industrial City. Ch. 14 (pp. 241ff) in: William J. CURTIS (1987/1996). Modern Architecture Since 1900. Phaidon Press Incorporated. ISBN 9780714833569. Int210/28410; Int210/28450.

Fig. 645 (p. 786) – Filarete’s  plan for the city of Sforzinda (1464). Fol. 43f. KRUFT, Hanno-Walter (1985/1994). A History of Architectural Theory from Vitruvius to the Present. Zwemmer/Princeton Architectural Press, New York. ISBN 0 0302 00603 6 Also in: PENNICK, Nigel (1979). The Ancient Science of Geomancy. Man in harmony with the earth. Thames and Hudson Ltd., London. And fig. 11 in: GIEDION, Sigfried (1941/1967). Space, Time and Architecture. The Growth of a New Tradition. The Charles Eliot Norton Lectures for 1938 – 1939. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass. LCCCN 67-17310. And: ROSENAU, Helen (1974). The Ideal City. Its Architectural Evolution. Rout-ledge and Kegan Paul, London (1959)/Studio Vista, London. ISBN 0 289 70201 1  And: GALANTAY, Ervin Y. (1979). New Towns: Antiquity to the Present. George Braziller, New York. ISBN 0-8076-076666-5  and fig. 183 in: KOSTOF, Spiro (1991). The City Shaped. Urban Patterns and Meanings Through History. A Bullfinch Press Book/Little, Brown and Company, Boston, Toronto, London. ISBN 0-8212-1867-0. DOC11/4144; DOC41/5464;   DOC64/7737; DOC75/9045; DOC94/11656; DOC98/12170; Int56/7582; Int88/11788; Int100/13417; Int101/13540 – 13542; Int101/13546.

Fig. 646 (p. 787) – Another ideal city by Filarete. Copyright©ArtServe 2002. Int101/13545. http://rubens.anu.edu.au/htdocs/surveys/italren/pics.art/0253/25307.JPG

Fig. 647 (p. 788) – A Sforzinda type of building ornament. From the Bleichenbrücke (Hamburg), built at the beginning of the nineteenth century.  Int101/13547 – 13550. Project by the artists Sabine Siegfried called ‘Längsachse’ (1989). Photo: http://www.hamburg.de/Behoerden/Kulturbehoerde/Raum/artists/sieg1.htm

Fig. 648 (p. 789) – Two examples of the ‘Ideal City’. Above: Image of an Ideal Piazza, 1500s. Frances di Giorgio. Fig. 4-25 in: TRANCIK, Roger (1986). Finding Lost Space. Theories of Urban Design. Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, New York. ISBN 0-442-28399-7. http://art.thewalters.org/viewwoa.aspx?id=37626  Given as ‘The Ideal City’ by Fra Carnevale (1445 – 1484?), ca 1480 – 1484’ on the website of the Walters Art Museum, Baltimore. ‘This extraordinary panel exemplifies Renaissance ideals of urban planning, respect for Greco-Roman antiquity, and the mastery of central perspective. The imaginary city square features a Roman arch typically erected as a commemoration of military victory at its center. As a whole, the painting offers a model of the architecture and sculpture that would ideally be commissioned by a virtuous ruler who cares for the welfare of the citizenry. The amphitheater is modeled on the Colosseum in Rome. The octagonal structure to the right, covered with colored stone, suggests the medieval Baptistery in Florence, which in the 15th century was thought to be a reused Roman temple. Together they reflect the importance of security, religion, and recreation in a well-regulated city and the value of Roman ideals in urban design. The private residences at either side are also dignified with classical architectural elements. Classicizing elements also appear in the foreground. Statues, set on columns in the Roman style, represent virtues of a good ruler, including Justice with her sword and scales and Liberality (generosity) with a cornucopia. This view and two related paintings (now in Urbino and Berlin) were apparently commissioned for the palace of Duke Federico da Montefeltro of Urbino. Set into the woodwork at shoulder height or higher, “The Ideal City” would have seemed like a window onto another, better world. The illusion of a space that extends out from our own is achieved using a mathematical perspective system developed in Florence. The space is defined in terms of the viewer’s own angle of vision: the receding lines establishing spatial relationships converge at a central point in the city gate visible beneath and beyond the Roman arch’ (The Walters Art Gallery, Baltimore). As ‘Architectural perspective by Luciano Laurana, 1450 – 1475’. Fig. 319 in: SCULLY, Vincent (1991). Architecture. The natural and the manmade. St. Martin’s Press, New York. ISBN 0-312-06292-3. See also: EATON, Ruth (2001). Ideal Cities. Utopianism and the (Un) Built Environ-ment. Thames and Hudson Ltd., London. ISBN 0-500-34186-9.

Below: The Ideal City, oil on panel, Galleria Nazionale delle Marche, Palazzo Ducale, Urbino. ‘This painting is by an unknown hand (possibly by a scholar of Piero della Francesca) and is much used by art designers to illustrate books on the Renaissance expressing an ordered ideal city of heavens’. http://www.italytravelescape.com/things-to-see-in-urbino.htm Given as ‘Perspectice of a square. Francesco di Giorgio (?) c. 1470’. Plate 77’ in: ROWE, Colin (1976). The Mathematics of the Ideal Villa and Other Essays. The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts and London. England. ISBN 0-262-18077-4. DOC70/8320; DOC82/9909; DOC88/10756; DOC101/12516.

Fig. 649 (p. 790) – Two versions of Albrecht Dürer’s idea of an ideal city (in: Etliche Unterricht, 1527). A (square): LAFAIVRE, Liane & TZONIS, Alexander (2004). The Emer-gence of Modern Architecture. A documentary history from 1000 to 1810. Routledge, New York. ISBN 0-415-26025-6   Also as fig. 61 in: KRUFT, Hanno-Walter (1985/1994). A History of Architectural Theory from Vitruvius to the Present. Zwemmer/Princeton Architectural Press, New York. ISBN 0 0302 00603 6. The city of Amaurot in Thomas More’s Utopia is given – in a drawing by Brian Goodey – as fig. 1.3 in: PINDER, David (2005). Visions of the City. Utopianism, Power and Politics in Twentieth-Century Urbanism. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh. ISBN 0 7486 1487 7. B (circular), also in: Etliche Unterricht, 1527. EATON, Ruth (2001). Op. cit.
DOC82/10007; Int100/13418; DOC101/12524.

Fig. 650 (p. 791) – Various ideal cities from the Renaissance. TABARELLI, Gian Maria (1974). La ‘cita ideale’ e l’arte della fortificazione nel Rinascimento. Pp. 38 – 57 in : CERIOTTI, Guido (Ed.). L’Illustrazione Italiana. L’uomo, le armi, le mura. Anni I, numero 2, 1974. Bramante Editrice, Milano. DOC11/1433 – 1437.

Fig. 651 (p.  793) – Freudenstadt (Germany). EATON, Ruth (2001). Op. cit.
DOC47/5967 (aerial photograph); DOC101/12528.

Fig. 652 (p. 794) – Christianopolis. Johann Valentin Andreae (1619). Rei publicae Christianopolitanae descriptio. Heirs of Lazari Zetzner, Strassburg (New edition Haarlem, 1978; in: EATON, Ruth (2001). Op. cit.). And: ROOB, Alexander (1997). Alchemie & Mystiek. Het hermetisch Museum. Benedikt Taschen Verlag GmbH, Keulen/Librero Nederland, Hedel. ISBN 3-8228-9199-1. DOC43/5614; DOC73/8774; Int100/13421 – 13422; DOC101/12539.

Fig. 653 (p. 797) – City plan of Richelieu. In: Philipp BOUDON (1978). Richelieu. Ville nouvelle. Essai d’architecturologie. Dunod, Paris. Given as fig.  81 in: KRUFT, Hanno-Walter (1989). Städte in Utopia – Die Idealstadt vom 15. bis zum 18. Jahrhundert zwischen Staatsutopie und Wirklichkeit. Verlag C.H. Beck, München. ISBN 3 406 33909 3. DOC73/8797; Int99/13311; Int99/13315 – 13317; Int213/28858.

Fig. 654 (p. 799) – Interpretation of the Ideal Cities on the CF-graph of the European cultural history by Marten Kuilman.  An extensive bibliography of ‘Utopian Writing’ in the period from 1516 to 1798 was given by Dr. Richard Serjeantson and Dr. Clare Jackson for their ‘Themes and Sources’ class at Trinity College, Cambridge. http://www.trin.cam.ac.uk/rws1001/utopia/bibliog.htm

Fig.  655 (p. 802) – Napoléonville (Pontivy), 1809  by J.J. Moll. p. 112 in: FEUERSTEIN, Günther (2008). Urban Fiction. Strolling through Ideal Cities from Antiquity to the Present Day. Edition Axel Menges, Stuttgart/London. ISBN 978-3-930698-26-4  Also in: EATON, Ruth (2001). Ideal Cities. Utopianism and the (Un)Built Environment. Thames and Hudson Ltd., London. ISBN 0-500-34186-9. Int194/26253; DOC101/12539.

Fig. 656 (p. 803) – Project of a Cenotaph for Newton. Elevation and section. Etienne Louis Boullee, 1784. Plate 80 in: ROWE, Colin (1976). The Mathematics of the Ideal Villa and Other Essays. The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts and London, England. ISBN 0-262-18077-4  Also in: BRAHAM, Allen 91980). The Architecture of the French Enlightenment. Thames and Hudson, London. DOC82/9911; DOC89/10882.

Fig. 657 (p. 804) – A detail of a plate showing the ‘Mécanisme de la com-position’ as proposed by Durand in his book ‘Précis des leçons d’archi-tecture données à l’école polytechnique’ (1802 – 1805). A building plan with space divisions by Jean-Nicolas-Louis Durand (Precis des leçons d’archi-tecture données a l’Ecole polytechnique, 1802) is given as fig. 133 in: LEFAIVRE, Liane & TZONIS, Alexander (2004). The Emergence of Modern Architecture. A documentary history from 1000 to 1810. Routledge, New York. ISBN 0-415-26025-6. For an article on ‘Durand and the Science of Architecture’ and the systematization of architectural knowledge, see: MADRAZO, Leandro (1994). JSTOR – Journal of Architectural Education, Vol. 48, No. 1, pp. 12 – 24. Int219/29618 – 29620;  DOC82/10032.

Fig. 658 (p. 805) – House no. 10 and 14 of Dubut. In: KAUFMANN, Emil (1985). Von Ledoux bis Le Corbusier. Ursprung und Entwicklung der Autonomen Architektur. Verlag Gerd Hatke, Stuttgart. DOC9/after 1102.

Fig. 659 (p. 806) – The first project for the Saline de Chaux, 1773-74. En-graving by Sellier and given as ppl. 113 in: RAMÉE, Daniel (1847). Architecture de C.N. Ledoux. 2 Vols., Lenoir édi-teur, Paris. Reproduced as fig. 108 in: KRUFT, Hanno-Walter (1989). Städte in Utopia – Die Idealstadt vom 15. bis zum 18. Jahrhundert zwischen Staatsutopie und Wirklichkeit. Verlag C.H. Beck, München. ISBN 3 406 33909 3 and as fig. 25 in: VIDLER, Anthony (1987). The Writing of the Walls. Architectural Theory in the Late Enlightenment. Princeton University Press, Princeton NJ. ISBN 0-910413-07-X   Also on p. 91 in: VIDLER, Anthony (1990). Claude-Nicolas Ledoux. Architecture and Social Reform at the End of the Ancien Régime. The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts. ISBN 0-262-22032-6. DOC64/7696; DOC73/8800; DOC103/12774.

Fig. 660 (p. 807) – Map of Saline de Chaux. CHRIST, Yvan (1961). Projets et Divagations de Claude-Nicolas Ledoux, Architecte du Roi. Editions du Minotaure, Paris.  And in : VIDLER, Anthony (1987). Op. cit. and VIDLER, Anthony (1990). Op. cit.
DOC9/1092; DOC64/7697; DOC103/12800 – 12802.

Fig. 661 (p. 808) – Perspective view of the  Town of Chaux. Engraving by Berthault. Pl. 116 in: RAMÉE (1847). Op. cit.  Fig. 269 in: BRAHAM, Allen (1980). The Architecture of the French Enlightenment. Thames and Hudson, London. Also as Plate 79 in: ROWE, Colin (1976). Op. cit.  And as fig. 122 in: KRUFT, Hanno-Walter (1985/1994). A History of Architectural Theory from Vitruvius to the Present. Zwemmer/Princeton Architectural Press, New York. ISBN 0 0302 00603 6.   And as fig. 4 in: FRAMPTON, Kenneth (1980/1985). Moderne architectuur: een kritische geschiedenis. Thames and Hudson, Ltd., London/SUN, Nijmegen. ISBN 90 6168 255 5 And on p. 74, p. 254 and p. 264  in: VIDLER, Anthony (1990). Op. cit. DOC29/4118; DOC30/4168; DOC73/8804; DOC82/9910; DOC89/10901.

Fig. 662 (p. 809) – Fourier’s scheme of social movement, as given in his book Théorie des quatre mouvements et des destinees generales (1808).  Tableau du Cours du Mouvement Social. Also, in a translated version (Ian Patterson) between p. 48 – 49 in: JONES, Gareth Stedman (Ed.) (1996). Charles Fourier. The Theory of the Four Movements. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, New York. ISBN 978-0-521-35614-5. For cosmological grids of Fourier (before 1808), see fig. 103 – 104 in: VIDLER, Anthony (1987). Op. cit. Docill 64; 7716. ‘Charles Fourier und seiner Phalansterie’ in: BRENTJES, Burchard (1993). Atlantis. Geschichte einer Utopie. DuMont, Köln. ISBN 3-7701-2910-5. . www.classiques.uqac.ca/classiques/fourier_charles/theorie_quatre_mouvements/theorie_4_mouvements.html  DOC102/12615.

Fig. 663 (p. 810) – The city of passageways and the ‘Unités d’habition’. Charles Fourier’s ‘garantiste’ city, attributed to André.  HENKET, Hubert-Jan & HEYNEN, Hilde (Ed.) Back from Utopia – The Challenge of the Modern Movement.  010 Publishers, Rotterdam. And as fig. 157 in: KRUFT, Hanno-Walter (1985/1994). Op. cit.  and p. 281 in: HENKET, Hubert-Jan & HEYNEN, Hilde (Ed.) (2002). Back from Utopia. The Challenge of the Modern Movement. 010 Publishers, Rotterdam. ISBN 90 6450 4830. DOC30/4183; DOC101/12542; DOC104/12852.

Fig. 664 (p. 811) – Familistère, a housing complex in Guise (France). An aerial view is given as ‘Guise, Familistère, for Social Palace with the Godin plant by Charles Fourier, 1871’ as plate 57 in: GALANTAY, Ervin Y. (1979). New Towns: Antiquity to the Present. George Braziller, New York. ISBN 0-8076-0766-5. Int216/29218 – 29226; DOC95/11693. Familistère by Jean-Baptiste Godin in Guise, 1859 – 1883. SERENYI, Peter (1967). Le Corbusier, Fourier and the Monastery of Ema. pp. 277 – 286 in: Art Bulletin 49, no. 4. DOC103/12754.

Fig. 665 (p. 812) – Design for a Community of 2000 Persons. WHITWELL, Stedman (1830). Description of an Architectural Model From a Design by Stedman Whitwell, Esq. for a Community Upon a Principle of United Interests, as Advocated by Robert Owen, Esq. Hurst Chance & Co.,   London. Prepared for the web by John W. Reps, Professor Emeritus, Department of City and Regional Planning, West Sibley Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853, USA. Int216/29196.

Fig. 666 (p. 813) – A map of the model town ‘Victoria’ by J.S. Buckingham, 1849 is given in: BURKE, Gerald (1971). Towns in the Making. Edward Arnold. ISBN 0 7131 5816 6  Also as fig. 56 in: GALANTAY, Ervin Y. (1979). New Towns: Antiquity to the Present. George Braziller, New York. ISBN 0-8076-0766-5  And as fig. 2.13 in: MORRIS, Eleanor Smith (1997). British town planning and urban design. Addison Wesley Longman, Harlow, England. ISBN 0-582-23496-4. DOC11/1444; DOC95/11692.

Fig. 667 (p. 814) – The Crystal Palace in London, 1851. CHAMPIGNEULLE, Bernard & ACHE, Jean (1962). L’Architecture du XXe Siècle. Presses Universitaires de France, Paris. DOC73/8699.

Fig. 668 (p. 815) – A Model town for the Happy Colony. SHEPPARD, E.A. (1962). The Happy Colony. In: MEIER, von, Karl (Ed.) (1962). Visionary Architecture. Auckland City Art Gallery – 4 October to 4 November 1962. Elam School of Fine Arts University of Auckland. Pelorus Press Ltd., Auckland, New Zealand. Original in: PEMBERTON, Robert (1854/1985). The Happy Colony. Saunders and Otley, London; Facs. by Garland Publ., New York. ISBN 0824062795. http://www.library.cornell.edu/Reps/DOCS/pemberto.htm Prepared for the web by John W. Reps, Professor Emeritus, Department of City and Regional Planning, West Sibley Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853, USA. Int218/29400 – 29406.

Fig. 669 (p. 816) – The Happy Colony by Robert Pemberton (Saunders and Otley, 1854), London: 80 – 82, 111. Plate 81 in: ROWE, Colin (1976). The Mathematics of the Ideal Villa and Other Essays. The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts and London. England. ISBN 0-262-18077-4. http://www.library.cornell.edu/Reps/DOCS/pemberto.htm ‘Little seems to be known about Pemberton (…). Apparently he was a philanthropist who lived in both London and Paris, being present in the latter city during the Revolution of 1848. He was an author of several books or tracts. These include An Address…on Robert Owen’s Proclamation of the Millenial State to Commence this Year (1855) (1855); An Address … on the Necessity of Popular Education … (1859); The Attributes of the Soul from the Cradle … (1849); Explanation given… of his Happy Colony … proving that his Investigation of the Human Mind is in perfect Harmohy with the Philosophy of Robert Owen.(1855); the Infant Drama: a Model of the Time Method of Teaching all Languages (1857); Report of the Proceedings at the Inauguration of Mr. Pemberton’s New Philosophical Model Infant School … (1857); and The Science of Mind-formation … (1858)’. (Formatted as a web document by: John W. Reps (2002), Cornell University, Ithaca/New York as part of the project: ‘Urban Planning, 1794 – 1918: An International Anthology of Articles, Conference Papers, and Reports’. DOC82/9912.

Fig. 670 (p. 817) – The slumless and smokeless cities of Ebenezer Howard (1898). FISHMAN, Robert (1977). Urban Utopias in the Twentieth Century. Ebenezer Howard, Frank Lloyd Wright, and Le Corbusier. Basic Books, Inc. Publishers, New York. ISBN 0-465-08933-X and in: PEHNT, Wolfgang (1998). Die Architektur des Expressionismus. Verlag Gerd Hatje, Ostfildern-Ruit. ISBN 3-7757-0668-2   See also fig. 5.8 in: HALL, Peter (1988). Cities of Tomorrow. An Intellectual History of Urban Planning and Design in the Twentieth Century. Basil Blackwell, Oxford. ISBN 0-631-13444-1. DOC77/9362r; DOC102/12644; DOC85/10384.

Fig. 671 (p. 818) – Parker and Unwin’s plan for Letchworth, 1907.  FISHMAN, Robert (1977). Op. cit. The Letchworth layout plan by Ricardo and Lethaby, 1903 is given as fig. 16 in: MILLER, Mervyn (1992). Raymond Unwin: Garden Cities and Town Planning. Leicester University Press, Leicester, London and New York. ISBN 0-7185-1363-0. DOC102/12645.

Fig. 672 (p. 819) – Satellite cities by Raymond Unwin. Fig. 79 in: GALANTAY, Ervin Y. (1979).  Op. cit. DOC95/11699.

Fig 673 (p. 820) – The central part of Ashbee’s town planning for Ruislip, drawn by Philippe Mairet. Plate 68 in: CRAWFORD, Alan (1985). C.R. Ashbee. Architect, Designer & Romantic Socialist. Yale University Press, New Haven and London. DOC77/9296.

Fig. 674 (p. 821) – Futuristic city by Bruno Taut, 1919. Schematischer Stadtplan. Fig. 72 in: JUNGHANNS, Kurt (1983). Bruno Taut; 1880 – 1938. Elefanten Press Verlag GmbH, Berlin. ISBN 3-88520-095-3  Fig. 161 in: PEHNT, Wolfgang (1998). Op. Cit.
DOC76/9204; DOC77/9362.

Fig. 675 (p. 822) – Die Stadtkrone by Bruno Taut, 1919. TAUT, Bruno (1919). Die Stadtkrone. Diederichs, Jena.  Fig. 8.19 in: WELTER, Volker M. (2002). Biopolis. Patrick Geddes and the City of Life. The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts. ISBN 0-262-23211-1. Also in: JUNGHANNS, Kurt (1983). Op. cit.  and PEHNT, Wolfgang (1998). Op. cit. and plate I.5 in: WHYTE, Boyd Iain (2003). Modernism and the Spirit of the City. Routledge, London. ISBN 0-415-25840-5. DOC76/9191. DOC76/9205. DOC77/9361; DOC102/12598.

Fig. 676 (p. 823) – Hufeisensiedlung Britz, Berlin-Neukölln. Bruno Taut, 1925 – 1929. SCHIRREN, Matthias (2004). Bruno Taut. Alpine Architektur. Eine Utopie. A Utopia. Prestel Verlag, München. ISBN 3-7913-3156-6. DOC104/12859. Grosssiedlung Berlin-Britz, 1925 – 1931. Lageplan und ursprünglicher Be-bauungsplan. Fig. 153 – 154 in: JUNGHANNS, Kurt (1983). Bruno Taut; 1880 – 1938. Elefanten Press Verlag GmbH, Berlin. ISBN 3-88520-095-3. DOC76/9207.

Fig. 677 (p. 824) – Futurist Pavilion by Prampolini in Turin (1928). www.rebel.net/~futurist/prampoli.jpg  A.A.M. Architettura Arte Moderna Dal 1978 la cultura del progetto: un pro-getto par l’arte moderna e contemporanea. Sguardi incrociati tra arte moderna e contemporanea, architettura, design e fotografia dal 900 ad oggi. Copyright 2003/2010. Int216/29229; Int220/29659.

Fig. 678 (p. 825) – The Bar of the Casa Bragaglia by Virgilio Marchi (Rome, 1921). See for a description, p. 296 (K 28) in: GRUNDMANN, Stefan & FURST, Ulrich (1998). The Architecture of Rome. An Architectural History in 400 Presentations. Ed. Axel Menges.

Fig. 679 (p. 826) – Model Town in a suburb of Lahore (Pakistan).  Int215/29091 – 29100. ©Estateman Properties International (2004), Islamabad. http://www.estateman.com/maps/Lahore/Model_Town/

Fig. 680 (p. 827) – A model of the Great Hall of the Reich in Berlin by Albert Speer, based on Hitler’s drawings. HOCHMAN, Elaine S. (1990). Architects of Fortune. Mies van der Rohe and the Third Reich. Fromm International Publishing Corporation, New York. ISBN 0-88064-121-5. See for a model of Speer’s Berlin also fig. 6.9 in: HALL, Peter (1988). Cities of Tomorrow. An Intellectual History of Urban Planning and Design in the Twentieth Century. Basil Blackwell, Oxford. ISBN 0-631-13444-1. DOC102/12692; DOC85/10387.

Fig. 681 (p. 828) – Quadruple Block Planning by Frank Lloyd Wright. Chicago Land Development Proposal, 1912 -1913.  Fig. 173 in: FRAMPTON, Kenneth (1980/1985). Moderne architectuur: een kritische geschiedenis. Thames &Hudson, Ltd., London/SUN, Nijmegen. ISBN 90 6168 266 5.  See also p. 226 in: TWOMBLY, Robert C. (1987). Frank Lloyd Wright. His Life and His Architecture. Wiley-IEEE. ISBN 0-471857971 And p. 63 in: EL-KHOURY, Rodolphe & ROBBINS, Edward (2004). Shaping the city. Studies in history, theory and urban design. Routledge. ISBN0415261899. See for other quadruple block planning by Lloyd Wright: MARCH, Lionel & STEADMAN, Philip (1971). The Geometry of Environment. An Introduction to spatial organization. Methuen & Co., Ltd/RIBA Publ. Ltd. SBN 416 8277 0. DOC29/4123.

Fig. 682 (p. 830) – ‘Apartments On Bridges’ by Hugh Ferriss from his book ‘Metropolis of Tomorrow’(1929). Int164/22105. http://thenonist.com/index.php/thenonist/permalink/hugh_ferriss_delineator_of_gotham

Fig. 683 (p. 831) – Drawings by Hugh Ferriss from the Avery Collection. A set can be seen on Kosmograd’s Flickr-photographs (2007). Int215/29101 – 29104; Int221/29854; Int221/29856. http://farm3.static.flickr.com/2208/2126326713_bd60d459cd.jpg?v=0 http://farm3.static.flickr.com/2401/2126320241_cdbc958065.jpg?v=0

Fig. 684 (p. 832) – Johnson Wax Administration Building in Racine (Wisc.) by Hugh Ferriss. For a photograph of the interior of the building, see: RASMUSSEN, Steen Eiler (1959). Experiencing Architecture. Chapman & Hall, London. DOC78/9411; Int221/29847; Int 221/29871 – 29875. And fig. 8.57 in: ROTH, Leland M. (2001). American Architecture. A History. Icon Editions, Westview Press/Perseus Books Group; Boulder, Colorado/ Oxford. ISBN 0-8133-3661-9. DOC107/13268. A similar treatment of the roof was designed by Pier Luigi Nervi for the Gatti Wool Factory in Rome (1953). The pattern of the ribs follows the isostatic lines of the principal bending moments. ‘The aesthetical satisfying result is a clear reminder of the mysterious affinity to be found between physical laws and our own senses.’ Pier Luigi Nervi (1965) in his article ‘Is Architecture Moving Toward Unchangeable Forms’, pp. 96 – 104 in: KEPES, Gyorgy (Ed.)(1965). Structure in Art and in Science. Studio Vista, London/George Braziller Inc., New York. A section and plan of the Laboratory Tower by Frank Lloyd Wright is given as fig. 14 in: CHAMPIGNEULLE, Bernard & ACHE, Jean (1962). L’Architecture du XXe Siècle. Presses Universitaires de France, Paris. DOC109/13530.

Fig. 685 (p. 833) – The Cubic City. New York as a cube. After a story by Reverend Louis Tucker in the September 1929 issue of Science Wonder. http://davidszondy.com/future/city/city%20cube.jpg

Fig 686 (p. 833) – NKTP Draft contest by Vesnin Brothers, 1934. http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/7c/Nktp_vesn_3.jpg  The Narkomtiazhprom was an architectural contest in 1934 for the Commissariat Heavy Industries, to be constructed on the Red Square in Moskow. Int222/29897.

Fig. 687 (p. 834) – The ‘Palace of Marriage’ in Tbilisi (Georgia). http://englishrussia.com/images/strange_soviet_buildings/strange The official name for the building is the ‘Palace of Solemn Ceremonies’. The architects were V. Dzhorbenadse, E. Mkervalishvili and B. Orbeladse. The building was completed in 1985. The ‘Hochzeitsturm’ on the Mathildenhöhe in Darmstadt (1907) by the Austrian architect Joseph M. Olbrich (1867 – 1908) was a similar functional type of building (see for the Mathilden-höhe project also p. 820). Int221/29878;  DOC106/13103.

Fig. 688 (p. 835) – The City for Three Million People by Le Corbusier. Fig. 4.8 in: MORRIS, Eleanor Smith (1997). British town planning and urban design. Addison Wesley Longman Limited, Harlow, England. ISBN 0-582-23496-4. Also as fig. 7 in: EVENSON, Norma (1974). Le Corbusier. The Machine and the Grand Design. Studio Vista, London. George Braziller, Inc., New York. SBN 289 79746. DOC66/7909; DOC85/10389.

Fig. 689 (p. 838) – Golgonooza. FOSTER DAMON, S. (1965). A Blake Dictionary. p. 338 in: ROOB, Alexander (1997). Het Hermetische Museum. Alchemie & Mystiek. Taschen Verlag GmbH, Keulen/Librero, Hedel Nederland. ISBN 3-8228-9199-1.  DOC43/5610. A reworked, colored version of William Blake’s Golgonooza (from: The Blake Dictionary by S. Foster Damon) is given at the Chrisis website of Lovelace  (Blake 5): http://www.chrisis.org/blake/golgonooza.html

Fig. 690 (p. 839) – A chart of the Blake’s Zoas as given by: FRYE, Northrop (1947/1969). Fearful Symmetry: A Study of William Blake. Princeton University Press, Princeton.

Fig. 691 (p. 840) – The Temple of Bacchus. Unknown artist. http://www.angelfire.com/nt/bacchai  The term cyberspace was introduced by the novelist William Gibson in his book ‘Neuromancer’ (Ed. Grafton) in 1984. ‘Architecture in the cyberspace’ is now a broad subject, which deserves special attention. ‘The reciprocal spatial contamination’ between the physical space (architecture) and the virtual space (cyberspace with virtual architecture) has only just begun. For a good introduction, see: Sandra OlVEIRA MARQUES and Jean-Pierre GOULETTE (1998). Between real and virtual worlds. Design studies in cyberspace. In: Proceedings of EuropIA’98: Cyberdesign, Europia Produc-tions, Paris). The following quotation is from: ANDERS, Peter (1999). Envisioning Cyberspace. Designing 3D Electronic Spaces. McGraw Hill, New York. ‘All objects are symbolic in cyberspace. On a different scale, they make reference to the physical world alluding to it often through metaphors. This connection is necessary to help the user guide itself inside the symbolic space. Our scale of abstraction helps us to understand the connections to our physical world, showing forms to classify the objects of cyberspace and to understand its meanings’.

Fig. 692 (p. 842) – The Islamitic City Model by Masoud Kheiradabi. KHEIRADABI, Masoud (1991). Iranian Cities. Formation and Development. University of Texas Press, Austin, Texas. ISBN 0-292-72468-3. DOC99/12283.

Fig. 693 (p. 843) – Nanno fossils from Stevens Klint, Denmark.  STANLEY, Steven M. (1987). Uitsterven. Rampen markeren elk nieuw begin. Scientific American Books, Inc./Uitgave Wetenschappelijke Bibliotheek Natuur & Techniek, Maastricht, Brussel. ISBN 90 70157 82 9. DOC30/4220.

Fig. 694 (p. 844) – The basic division within an imaginary Quadralectic City called  Quadrilo, by Marten Kuilman.

Fig. 695 (p. 845) – The quadralectic city (Quadrilo) by Marten Kuilman.

Fig. 696 (p. 846) – Graph City by Marten Kuilman.

Fig. 697 left (p. 847) – Komposition (1919) by Piet Mondriaan. BESSET, Maurice (1968). Wer war Le Corbusier? Editions d’Art Skira, Genève. DOC29/4124.

Fig. 697 right (p. 847) – Quadrilo. The diagram is produced by a Data-matrix Generator provided by the Swiss firm Kaywa in Zürich. http://datamatrix.kaywa.com).

Fig. 698 (p. 847) – Two cell patterns emerging from identical rules and the same starting conditions, but different limitations. PEAK, David & FRAME, Michael (1994). Chaos under Control. The Art and Science of Complexity. W.H. Freeman and Company, New York. ISBN 0-7167-2429-4. See for an interesting article on this matter, in particular Ch. 4 (p. 203) on ‘the cellular automata in architecture’: RUBINOWICZ, Pawel (2000). Chaos and Geometric Order in Architecture and Design. Pp. 197 – 207 in: Journal for Geometry and Graphics. Volume 4 (2000), No. 2. Int205/27748 – 27758.

Fig. 699 (p. 849) – An overview of the four types of complex systems, which are part of the complexity theory, in a quadralectic interpretation.

Fig. 700 (p. 850) – A quadralectic interpretation of the various entities of Venturi’s ‘architecture of complexity’ as given by Marten Kuilman. VENTURI, Robert (1962). Complexity and Contradiction in Architecture. The Museum of Modern Art Press, New York.  ‘The desire for a complex architecture, with its attendant contradictions, is not only a reaction to the banality or prettiness of current architecture. It is an attitude common in the Mannerist periods: the sixteenth century in Italy or the Hellenistic period in Classical art, and is also a continuous strain seen in such diverse architects as Michelangelo, Palladio, Borromini, Vanbrugh, Hawksmoor, Soane, Ledoux, Butterfield, some architects of the Shingle Style, Furness, Sullivan, Lutyens, and recently, Le Corbusier, Aalto, Kahn, and others. Today this attitude is again relevant to both the medium of architecture and the program in architecture’. Venturi’s commissions included buildings for Princeton and the University of Pennsylvania. Other important achievements comprise the Seattle Art Museum (1985 -1991) and the Sainsbury Wing of the National Gallery in London (1986 – 1991). He won the Pritzker Architecture Prize in 1991.

Fig. 701 (p. 851) – The enthousiasm for industrial functional buildings. Werner Lindner & Georg Steinmetz (1923). Die Ingenieurbauten in ihrer guten Gestaltung.  P. 273, fig. 65 in: GYŐNGY, Katalin M. & MORAVÁNSZKY, Ákos (Ed.) (2003). Architektur-theorie im 20.Jahrhundert. Eine kritische Anthologie. Springer-Verlag, Wien, New York. ISBN 3-211-83743-4. DOC107/13228.

Fig. 702 (p. 852) – The Equitable Building in New York (1915). WILLIS, Carol (1995). Form follows finance. Skyscrapers and Skylines in New York and Chicago. Princeton Architectural Press, New York. ISBN 1-56898-070-1. DOC87/10647. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Equitable_Building_%28Manhattan%29  ‘The building was constructed as the headquarters of The Equitable Life Assurance Society of the United States. The site had previously been intended in 1906 for a 62-story tower designed by Daniel H. Burnham, but the project had been postponed. When the Equitable’s previous head-quarters were destroyed by fire in 1912, the site was chosen as the location of its new headquarters. It was originally intended to be 40 stories high, but it was reduced by four floors on the advice of consulting engineer Charles Knox, who determined the lower height as being optimal for its elevators’.

Fig. 703 (p. 853) – Votive plaza in Vienna (Austria), 1909. Fig. 3-11 in: TRANCIK, Roger (1986). Finding Lost Space. Theories of Urban Design. Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, New York. ISBN 0-442-28399-7.  DOC70/8311.

Fig. 704 (p. 854) – The Forum of Pompeii. SITTE, Camillo (1889). Der Städte Bau – City Plannning according to Artistic Principles. Fig. 1 in: COLLINS, George R. & CRASEMANN COLLINS, Christiane (1965/1986). Camillo Sitte: The Birth of Modern City Planning. Phaidon Press, London/ Rizzoli International Publications, Inc. New York/Dover Books. ISBN 0-8478-0556-5. A plan of the Forum of Pompeii with the Temple of the Capitoline Triad is given in the (web-based) course material of Professor E.W. Leach, Classical Studies Department, University of Indiana (Fall Semester 2009, C414). Copyright  1998, The Trustees of Indiana University. DOC84/10174; Int109/14604.    .http://www.indiana.edu/~leach/c414/net_id/pompeii/forum/capitoline.html

Fig. 705 (p. 855) – A reconstruction of the Forum Romanum. BOER, de, M.G. & HETTEMA, H. (1913). Kleine Platen-atlas ten gebruike bij het onderwijs in de Algemene Geschiedenis. A.W. Sijthoff’s Uitg. Mij., Leiden.

Fig. 706 (p. 856) – The plan of Santa Maria Assunta di Carrignani in Genoa. G.V. Casale. Biblioteca Nacional, Madrid.  Fig. 25 in: KUBLER, George (1982). Building the Escorial. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey. ISBN 0-691-03975-5. DOC99/12247.

Fig. 707 (p. 857) – The Piazza del Duomo in Pisa (Italy). SITTE, Camillo (1889).  Op. cit. DOC27/3845. For a plan of the Cathedral of Pisa, see fig. 158 in: BECKWITH, John (1987). Vroeg-middeleeuwse kunst. Karolingisch Ot-toons, Romaans. Gaade & Co., Uitgevers, Veenendaal. (transl: Early medieval art: Carolingian, Ottonian, Romanesque. World of Art, 1964). ISBN 9060177525. DOC71/8477. For a cross section of the Duomo, see p. 387, fig. 2 in: BOECK, Urs (1988). Der Pisaner Dom und seine Westfassade – eine ‘Baunaht’ als Vexierbild und die Folgen. Pp. 385 – 400 in: MUCH, Franz J. (1988). Baukunst des Mittelalters in Europa. Hans Erich Kubach zum 75. Geburtstag. Stuttgarter Gesellschaft für Kunst und Denkmalpflege. Stuttgart 1988. ISBN 3-926168-00-5. DOC104/12960. For an aerial view of the Campo Santo in Pisa, see fig. 197 in: NORBERG-SCHULZ, Christian (1974). Meaning in Western Architecture. Studio Vista/Electa Editrice, Milano/Praeger Publications, Inc. ISBN 0 289 705699 X

Fig. 708 (p. 858) – The city of Lucca. SAALMAN, Howard (1968). Medieval Cities. George Braziller, Inc. New York. LCCCN 68-24702. Docill 56; 7003

Fig. 709 (p. 858) – Piazza San Pietro, Rome. Left: Piazza Oblique. Bernini’s solution for the Colonnade. KITAO, Tomothy K. (1974). Circle and Oval in the Square of Saint Peter’s. Bernini’s Art of Planning. New York University Press for the College Art Association of America, New York. ISBN 0-8147-4557-1. Docill 48; 6095  (left);  Docill 70; 8310 (right). Right: Piazza San Pedro on Nolli’s map of Rome (1748). Fig. 3-10 in: TRANCIK, Roger (1986). Finding Lost Space. Theories of Urban Design. Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, New York. ISBN 0-442-28399-7. A more recent map is given as PL XXXVIII in: COLLINS, George R. & CRASEMANN COLLINS, Christiane (1965/1986). Camillo Sitte: The Birth of Modern City Planning (with a translation of the 1889 Austrian edition of his City Planning according to Artistic Principles – Der Städte Bau). Phaidon Press, London/Dover Books.

Fig. 710 (p. 859) – The Piazza Campidoglio in Rome. Du Pérac’s rendering of the Campidoglio is given as fig. 12 in: KITAO, Tomothy K. (1974). Docill 48; 6071. Michelangelo’s plan for the Campidoglio in an engraving by Dupérac c. 1544, fig. 332 in: NORBERG-SCHULZ, Christian (1974). Meaning in Western Architecture. Studio Vista/Electa Editrice, Milano/Praeger Publications, Inc. ISBN 0 289 705699 X. Docill 105; 12967  Docill 105; 12971 – 12972. The Campidoglio Plan is given as fig. 3-6 in: TRANCIK, Roger (1986). Op.cit. Docill 70; 8307. An aerial view of Michelangelo’s Piazza Campidoglio is given as fig. 303 in: SCULLY, Vincent (1991). Architecture. The natural and the manmade. St. Martin’s Press, New York. ISBN 0-312-06292-3. Docill 88; 10755

Fig. 711 (p. 860) – A view of the Piazza Campidoglio. A drawing by Marten Kuilman.

Fig. 712 (p. 861) – Project for a renovation of the Place de la Concorde (Paris) by Durand.BRINCKMANN, A.E. (1923). Platz und Monument als künstlerisches Formproblem. Verlegt by Ernst Wasmuth, Berlin. Docill 66; 7906

Fig. 713 (p. 862) – A wintery view at Travalgar Square in London by the artist Steve Greaves. Int 225; 30385 – 30397. http://www.stevegreaves.com/images/Trafalgar%20Sqare%20copy2.jpg  Harold Speed (1972) described in his book ‘The Practice & Science of Drawing’ the bronze lions on Travalgar Square ‘looking as if they were modeled in dough and possessing in consequence none of the vital qualities of the lion.’ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eleanor_cross  A cross at the top of Whitehall, on the south side of Travalgar Square, was part of the so-called Eleanor Crosses. These twelve stone monuments were built in a line between Lincoln and London in the years 1291 and 1294 by King Edward I. They marked the resting places along the route to London for Queen Eleonor, who died in 1290 at Harby, near Lincoln and was buried at Westminster. The twelve crosses were situated at Lincoln, Grantham, Stamford, Geddington, Hardingstone, Stony Stratford, Woburn, Dunstable, St. Albans, Waltham, Cheapside (West Cheap) and Charing Cross. Only three of the original crosses are still in place (Waltham Cross, Northampton and Geddington). The Charing Cross in London was destroyed in 1647 and replaced by an equestrian statue of Charles I in 1675. This point is regarded as the official centre of London in legislation and for measuring distances. A Victorian replacement of the (Eleanor) cross was positioned in front of Charing Cross Railway Station in 1865. http://www.urbannebula.nl/?datatype=visualization&req=date&id=1914-1942  A futuristic approach to the London’s  Kings Cross was given in 1931 by Charles Glover, on p. 91 in: PEARMAN, Hugh (1998), Contemporary World Architecture. Phaidon, London (fig. 855).

Fig. 855 –  A flying square above King’s Cross in London as envisaged by Charles Glover in 1931.

Fig. 714 (p. 863) – A plan of the city of Bath in the time of John Wood the Younger, 1764 and 1769. Plan 4-21 in: TRANCIK, Roger (1986). Op. cit.  Docill 70; 8317

Fig. 715 (p. 864) – Karlsruher Marktplatz with pyramide, 1818. Fig. 33, p. 76 in: HOLLAND, Ingve Jan (1996). Grande Arche und Louvre-Pyramide. Zwei Pariser Staatsprojekte unter François Mitterrand. Scaneg Verlag, München. ISBN 3-89235-108-2. Docill 74; 873. This pyramid is, just like the Louvre, the starting point of a Via Triumphalis, or city axis. It cannot be proven that this etching had a direct influence on Pei’s pyramid near the Louvre (see p. 532, fig. 434), but an article by the architect Marcary, who worked together with Pei on the Louvre project, was published in 1984 with the drawing of Weinbrenner of the pyramid in Karlsruhe.

Fig. 716 (p. 865) – The Palace of Sargon II in Dour-Sarkin (Khorsabad, Iraq), some twenty kilometers north-north-east of Mossoul (Kurdistan). LAURET, Alain; MALEBRANCHE, Raymond & SÉPHIN, Gilles (1988). Bastides, Villes nouvelles du Moyen-Age. Éditions & Communication Cahors, Éditions Milan, Toulouse. ISBN 2 86726.356.2. Docill 97 ; 12065. See for a (slightly different) view of the palace also: http://www.cosmovisions.com/monuKhorsabad.htm  The city had eight gates dedicated to the principal deities of the Assyrian pantheon. Sargon II lived in his palace in 706 BC, but was assassinated two years later.

Fig. 717 (p. 866) – The Palace of Darius. Drawing by Maureen Stafford. GLOAG, John (1975). The Architectural Interpretation of History. Adam & Charles Black, London. ISBN 0 7136 1559 1. Docill 102; 12704

Fig. 718 (p. 867) – A map of That-I Sulaiman royal (temple) complex as given by Huff, after the excavation campaign of 1969. P. 118,  Abb. 43 in: SCHIPPMANN, Klaus (1971). Die iranischen Feuerheiligtümer. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin/New York. ISBN 3 11 001 879 9. Docill 96; 11858

Fig. 719 (p. 868) – That-I Sulaiman, 1964.  Abb. 44 in: SCHIPPMANN, Klaus (1971). Op. cit. Docill  96; 11859

Fig. 720 (p. 869) – Room A in fire temple That-I Sulaiman complex, after Naumann, 1964. A drawing by Marten Kuilman.

Fig. 721 (p. 870) – The Imperial Palaces in the Forbidden City (Beijing, China). The complex consists of more than 9,000 rooms and is spread over 250 acres. The building started in the 15th century and was extensively renovated during the Qing Dynasty in the 18th century. LIANG, Ssu-ch’eng (1984). A Pictorial History of Chinese Architecture. A Study of the Development of Its Structural System and the Evolution of Its Types. The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts/London, England. ISBN 0-262-12103-4. Docill 99; 12186

Fig. 722 (p. 871) – The Strozzi Palace in Florence. A drawing by Marten Kuilman after a photo. Int 226; 30491 – 30492

Fig. 723 (p. 872) – A palace plan by a follower of Francesco di Giorgio. Codex Ashburnham, App. 1828 (Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana, Flo-rence). Fig. 2.10 in: HERSEY, G.L. (1976). Pythagorean Palaces. Magic and Architecture in the Italian Renaissance. Cornell University Press, Ithaca and London. ISBN 0-8014-0998-5. Docill 88; 10773

Fig. 724 (p. 874) – The Palazzo Valmarana in Vicenza (Italy). Drawing by Marten Kuilman after a photo. Int 226; 30526. http://www.architecture.com/Images/Palladio/TheDrawingLaboratory

Fig. 725 (p. 875) – The plan of the monastery cloisters of the Escorial. Matilde Lopez Serrano (1944). Trazas de Juan de Herrera (LS), pl. 21. Fig. 31 in: KUBLER, George (1982). Building the Escorial. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey. ISBN 0-691-03975-5. Docill 99; 12250

Fig. 726 (p. 876) – The fountain of the Evangelists at the Escorial.  After Ruiz de Arcaute, Juan de Herrera, pp. 121, 122. Fig. 49C in: KUBLER, George (1982). Op. cit. Docill 99; 12259

Fig. 727 (p. 877) – Perspective view of the Escorial.  Luciano Rubio in: La Ciudad de Dios (1949); 161 (CD). Fig. 34 in: KUBLER, George (1982). Op. cit. Docill 99; 12252

Fig. 728 (p. 878) – The circular view of the crypt. Matilde Lopez Serrano (1944). Trazas de Juan de Herrera (LS), pl. 23. Fig. 44 in: KUBLER, George (1982). Op. cit. Docill 99; 12257

Fig. 729 (p. 879) – The interior of the monastery-crossing tower of the Escorial. Photo Edward G.A. Kubler. Fig. 97C in: KUBLER, George (1982). Op. cit. Docill 99; 12250

Fig. 730 (p. 880) – The plan of the Escorial near Madrid. FLETCHER, Banister (1975). A History of Architecture (revised by J.C. Palmer). The Athlone Press, University of London, London. ISBN 0 485 55001 6. Docill 95; 11769

Fig. 731 (p. 881) – Plan of the Comares and Lion Palaces. Fig. 92 in: RUGGLES, D. Fairchild (2000). Gardens, landscapes, and vision in the palaces of Islamic Spain. The Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park. ISBN 0-271-01851-8. Docill 69; 8216. Another map of the Alhambra is given as fig. 51 in: JELLICOE, Geoffrey & Susan (1975/1995). The Landscape of Man. Shaping the Environment from Prehistory to the Present Day. Thames and Hudson Ltd., London. ISBN 0-500-27819-9 And also in: HATTSTEIN, Markus & DELIUS, Peter (2000). Islam – Kunst en architec-tuur (Islam – Kunst und Architektur). Könemann Verlaggesellschaft mbH, Keulen. ISBN 3-8290-2557-2. Docill 86; 10493. For a plan of the Court of Lions (Patio de los Leones), started in 1377 by Mohammed V, see p. 21 in: VILLIERS-STUART, Constance M. (1929). Spanish Gardens. Their History, Types and Features. B.T. Batsford, London. Docill 69; 8267. See for a color plate of the ‘Court of the Lions’ at the Alhambra, Plate 7 in : RUGGLES, D. Fairchild (2000). Gardens, landscape, and vision in the palaces of Islamic Spain. The Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park. ISBN 0-271-01851-8. Docill 69; 8200

Fig. 732 (p. 882) – Map of Le Petit Parc de Versailles. BERGER, Robert W. (1985). In the Garden of the Sun King. Studies on the Park of Versailles under Louis XIV. Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, Washington D.C. ISBN 0-88402-141-6. DOC106/13115.

Fig. 733 (p. 883) – The Palace of the Sun King at Versailles. PENNICK, Nigel (1979). The Ancient Science of Geomancy. Man in har-mony with the earth. Thames and Hudson Ltd., London. DOC41/5468.

Fig. 734 (p. 884) – The Royal Palace of Caserta. Luigi Vanvitelli, 1756. Fig. 92 in: KRUFT, Hanno-Walter (1989). Städte in Utopia – Die Idealstadt vom 15. bis zum 18. Jahrhundert zwischen Staatsutopie und Wirklichkeit. Verlag C.H. Beck, München. ISBN 3 406 33909 3. DOC73/8798.

Fig. 735 (p. 885) – The planned city of Caserta by Luigi Vanvitelli, 1756. Fig. 93 in: KRUFT, Hanno-Walter (1989). Op.cit. DOC73/8799.

Fig. 736 (p. 886) – Palace Farnese at Caprarola near Viterbo (Italy). Etching by Jacques Vignole (1507 – 1573). Document Bibliothèque Natio-nale, Paris. In : CHASTEL, André (1968). La Crise de la Renaissance. 1500 – 1600. Editions d’Art Albert Skira, Genève. DOC49/6202.

Fig. 737 (p. 887) – Frederiksstaden. The four palaces at Amalienborg, Copenhagen. Folder (1999) by the Slots- og Ejendomsstyrelsen, Det Danske Kunstindustrimuseum, København. Plan by Hans Henrik Tholstrup. ‘The Frederiksstaden district was constructed during the reign of Frederick V in the second half of the 18th century, and it is considered to be one of the most important Rococo complexes in Europe. It was developed to commemorate the 300-year  jubilee of the House of Oldenburg ascending to the Danish throne. A.G. Moltke was responsible of the project and Nicolai Eigtved was the main architect. Frederiksstaden has Amalienborg Palace and the Marble Church at its center, and together they create an axis that was extended with the creation of the new Copenhagen Opera House in 2005 on the other side of the harbor basin. Another important building in the district is the Royal Frederiks Hospital, which was Denmark’s first hospital in the present-day meaning of the word. It now houses the Danish Museum of Art & Design.’ (From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frederiksstaden

Fig. 738 (p. 888) – The Royal Palace (Afin) in Ado-Ekiti in southwest Nigeria. Fig. 3 in: OJO, G.J. Afolabi (1966). Yoruba Palaces. A Study of Afins of Yorubaland. University of London Press Ltd., London. Docill 98; 12143

Fig. 739 (p. 889) – A map of the Afin Oyo in Oyo-Ile, 1937. Fig. 8 in: OJO, G.J. Afolabi (1966). Op. cit. Docill 98; 12148

Fig. 740 (p. 890) – Door panel with birds and divination tray. Art and Oracle. African Art and Rituals of Divination. Rolf and Christine Miehler Collection, München. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. Int. 226; 30502. http://www.metmuseum.org/explore/oracle/figure44L.html  Other examples of divination trays and their meaning can be found in: DREWAL, Henry John & PERBERTON III, John (1989). Yoruba. Nine Centuries of African Art and Thought. The Center for African Art/Harry N. Abrams Inc., Publishers, New York. ISBN 0-8109-1794-7

Fig. 741 (p. 891) – Design for a Peace Palace by the Finnish-American architect and industrial designer Eero Saarinen (1910 – 1961). WALENKAMP, H.J.M. (1908). Over hedendaagsche en toekomstige bouw-kunst. Pp. 281 – 340 in: BERLAGE, H.P. (Ed.) (1908). Zeven voordrachten over bouwkunst (gehouden voor ’t Genootschap Architectura et Amicitia). Nederlandsche Bibliotheek, L. Simons (Ed.). Maatschappij voor goede en goedkoope lectuur, Amsterdam. Docill 83; 10142. Saarinen was a follower of Sitte’s ideas of (city) architecture, with an emphasis on informal design, an interrelation of building units and a formation of plaza and streets into organic spatial enclosures. See also: SAARINEN, Eliel (1943). The City. Its Growth. Its Decay. Its Future. Reinhold Publishing Corporation, New York.

Fig. 742 (p. 892) – Design for a Vredespaleis by H.P. Berlage Nzn. BERLAGE, H.P. (Ed.) (1908). Op. cit. Docill 83; 10144

Fig. 743 (p. 892) – Design for a Vredespaleis by W. Kromhout Czn. BERLAGE, H.P. (Ed.) (1908). Op. cit. DOC83/10143.

Fig. 744 (p. 893) – Herodium, King Herod’s Palace-Fortress. Int122/16450 – 16454; Int239/32151 – 32153. http://www.israel-mfa.gov.il/MFA/History

Fig. 745 (p. 894) – Steinsberg Castle near Sinsheim (Germany). Fig. 471 in: BINDUNG, Günther (1987). Architektonische Formenlehre. Wissenschaft-liche Buchgesellschaft, Darmstadt. ISBN 3-07861-6. DOC86/10530. http://www.sinsheim.de/servlet/PB/menu/1905596_l2/index.html ‘Steinberg Castle, between Sinsheim and Weiler and visible from afar, was called the “compass on the Kraichgau” early in the region’s history. Historical drawings of the mountain and the castle date back to the early Middle Ages. It saw many dynasties through the centuries. The poet Spervogel sang about the castle in his love songs during the second half of the 12th Century. From the 13th – 15th Century, the castle was the domicile of a Palatine office for administration property holdings in southwest Kraichgau. The castle has been property of the City of Sinsheim since 1973, which has since invested significant amounts of sums in its maintenance’. © Stadt Sinsheim | Wilhelmstr. 14-18 | 74889 Sinsheim.

Fig. 746 (p. 895) – Left: Castel del Monte (Apulia). Right: Castle in Prato (Toscany). Fig. 538/541 in: BINDUNG, Günther (1987). Op. cit. DOC86/10536. A good documentation of the Castle del Monte is given in: LOSITO, Maria (2003). Castel del Monte e la cultura arabo-normanna in Federico II. Mario Adda Editore, Bari. ISBN 88-8082-536-4

Fig. 747 (p. 896) – Plan of  Camber Castle, near Rye. Measured by Reginald Blomfield, 1937. BLOMFIELD, Sir Reginald (1938). Sebastien le Pestre de Vauban 1633 – 1707. Methuen & Company Limited Publishers, London. DOC89/10957′

Fig. 748 (p. 897) – Plan of Chateau of Chambord. JANSON, H.W. (1962/1986). History of Art. Harry N. Abrams, Inc., New York. ISBN 0-8109-1094-2.  DOC84/10253; DOC86/10476. And as fig. 363 in: COOK, Theodore A. (1913). The Curves of Life. Constable and Company, London.

Fig. 749 (p. 898) – Frontispiece of ‘Versteckte Vesting’ by Henrick Ruse, 1554. Published by Johannes Blaeu in Amsterdam. SNEEP, J.; TREU, H.A. & TYDEMAN, M. (Ed) (1982). Vier eeuwen ves-tingbouw in Nederland. Stichting Menno van Coehoorn. ’s-Gravenhage. De Walburg Pers, Zutphen. DOC30/4247.

Fig. 750 (p. 899) – The Citadel of Antwerp. Design by F. Paciotto. From: D. Speckle (1589) – Architectura von Festungen. SNEEP, J. et al. (1982). Op. cit. DOC30/4234.

Fig. 751 (p. 900) – Vauban’s fortifications of Lille (1709). PENNICK, Nigel (1979). The Ancient Science of geomancy. Man in harmony with the earth. Thames and Hudson Ltd., London. DOC41/5467; DOC88/10813. A wider view of the new fortifications of Lille is given as fig. 8 by: DUFFY, Christopher (1985). The Fortress in the Age of Vauban and Frederick the Great 1660 – 1789 (Siege Warfare Volume II). Routledge & Kegan Paul, London. ISBN 0-7100-9648-8

Fig. 752 (p. 901) – Plan of Neuf-Brisach. From : Belidor ‘La Science des Ingénieurs’, 1729. DUFFY, Christopher (1985). Op. cit. and  BLOMFIELD, Sir Reginald (1938). Op. cit. DOC88/10818; DOC89/10961.

Fig. 753 (p. 902) – The Art of Preserving Health, 1631. ROOB, Alexander (1997). Alchemie & Mystiek. Het Hermetisch Museum. (The Hermetic Museum. Alchemy & Mysticism). Benedikt Taschen Verlag GmbH, Keulen/Librero Nederland, Hedel (Taschen America LLc). ISBN 3-8228-9199-1   ISBN 3 8228 8653-X  Also in: KNIGHT, Gareth (1991). Magic and the Western Mind. Ancient knowledge and the transformation of Consciousness. Llewellyn Publications. St. Paul, Minnesota, 55164, U.S.S. ISBN 0-87542-374-4. A poem called ‘The Art of Preserving Health’ was made some hundred years later by John Armstrong (1709 – 1774). http://ia700102.us.archive.org/7/items/artofpreservingh00arms/artofpreservingh00arms.pdf  ‘The Art of Preserving Health: A Poem. In Four Books’, by John Armstrong, 1745. Edition reprint (2010). Publisher Biblio Bazaar. ISBN1170089887. DOC22/7879;  DOC66/7879.

Fig. 754 (p. 903) – Map of Coevorden (The Netherlands). Drawn by J.H. Schuller. Algemeen Rijksarchief, ‘s-Gravenhage, OPV K 48. SNEEP, J. et al. (1982). Op. cit. DOC30; 4244.

Fig. 755 (p. 906) – The position of the prominence of fear on the universal communication graph as drawn by Marten Kuilman; 3 February 2009.

Fig. 756 (p. 907) – Nagakin Capsule Tower in the Ginza area of Tokyo  by Kisho Kurakawa, 1972. http://www.inhabitat.com/2007/05/04/modern-prefab-nakagin-capsule-towers/ The idea of capsules was earlier tried by the architect Moshe Saftie at the Montreal Expo in 1967. The building complex was called ‘Habitat 67’. The concrete modules were stacked up to twelve floors high and are still in use. Int229/30927 – 30933;  Int230/30940; Int242/32567.

Fig. 757 (p. 908) – Lambay Castle, County Dublin, 1905 – 1920 by Sir Edwin Luyens for the Hon. C. Baring, Lord Revelstoke (1864 – 1934). P. 152 in: WATKIN, David (1982). The English Vision. The Picturesque in Architec-ture, Landscape and Garden Design. John Murray (Publishers) Ltd., London. ISBN 0 7195 3972 2. DOC71/8506; DOC90/11090. Another picture of Lambay Castle with the walled environment in: BROWN, Jane (1982). Gardens of A Golden Afternoon. The story of a partnership: Edwin Lutyens & Gertrude Jekyll. Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, New York. ISBN 0-442-21256-9

Fig. 758 (p. 909) – Bridge of Tears, Manchester. DIJKSTRA, Henk (Red.) (1992). Ontwikkeling van de stad. De wording van Europa. HD Communication Consultants B.V., Hilversum/M & P Uitgeverij B.V. Weert. ISBN 90 6590 595 2. DOC35/4779.

Fig. 759 (p. 910) – The Larkin Building in Buffalo. Int49/6522 – 6530; Int242/32569 – 32581. http://www.terrastories.com/bearings/frank-lloyd-wright-and-his-forgotten-larkin-building

Fig. 760 (p. 911) – Plan and section of St. Mark’s Tower, New York City. By Frank Lloyd Wright, 1929. Fig. 7 in: ROWE, Colin (1976). The Mathematics of the Ideal Villa and Other Essays. The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts and London, England. ISBN 0-262-18077-4. DOC81/9886.

Fig. 761 (p. 912) – Merchants National Bank building in Grinnell (Iowa), 1913 – 1915. Photo: Dunteman. Int229;/30886; DOC107/13311. http://farm1.static.flickr.com/138/371979911_609b409587.jpg  http://www.flickr.com/photos/army_arch/371979914/ Fig. XIII.6 (Photo by Robert Twombly) in: TWOMBLY, Robert (1986). Louis Sullivan. His Life and Work. Elisabeth Sifton Books/Viking Penguin Inc., New York. ISBN 0-670-80459-2.

Fig. 762 (p. 913) – Fair Store by William Le Baron Jenney. Plate 38 in: ROWE, Colin (1976). The Mathematics of the Ideal Villa and Other Essays. The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts and London, England. ISBN 0-262-180077-4. DOC81/9889.

Fig. 763 (p.  914) – Liver Bird in Liverpool.  Int 229/30888; Int 231/31079 – 31080. A drawing by Marten Kuilman after an upload by Steve Pitt at:  http://www.enjoyengland.com/photos/steve_pit/1860/

Fig. 764 (p. 915) – Van Nelle Building in Rotterdam, 1926 – 1930 by L.C. van der Vlugt and Mart Stam. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Van_nelle.jpg  From: FRAMPTON, Kenneth (1980). Modern Architecture. A Critical Introduction. Thames & Hudson. Int231/31086.

Fig. 765 (p. 916) – Seagram Building (New York) by Mies van der Rohe and Philip Johnson, 1954 – 1958. Photo: Ezra Stoller/Esto, courtesy of Philip Johnson. Fig. 9.10 in: ROTH, Leland M. (2001). American Architecture. A History. Icon Editions, Westview Press/Perseus Books Group; Boulder, Colorado/Oxford. ISBN 0-8133-3661-9. DOC107/13272.

Fig. 766 (p. 917) – Left: Pennzoil Place in Houston; right: Thompson Center in Chicago. Fig. 9.52 and fig. 10.53 in: ROTH, Leland M. (2001). Op. cit. DOC107/13279; DOPC107/13286.

Fig. 767 (p. 918) – The City Hall and library of the city of The Hague (The Netherlands) by Richard Meier. MEIER, Richard (1990). Richard Meier. Buildings and Projects. Academy Editions, London. ISBN 0-85670-960-3. DOC29/4140.

Fig. 768 (p. 922) – The observatory of Gaocheng. http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/2/2f/Master_Zhou%27s_Astronomical_Observatory.jpg  See also p. 100/101 in: CHANG, Chao-Kang & BLASER, Werner (1987). China. Tao in Architecture (Tao in der Architektur). Birkhäuser Verlag, Basel/Boston. ISBN 3-7643-608-X. Int204/27571 – 27573; DOC83/10095 – 10096.

Fig. 769 (p. 923) – The observatory of Verbiest in Beijing. Fig. 1 in Chapter IV: Tycho Brahe in China: the Jesuit Mission to Peking and the Iconography of European Instrument-Making Process. In: CHAPMAN, Allan (1996). Astronomical Instruments and Their Users. Tycho Brahe to William Lassell. VARIORUM. Ashgate Publishing Ltd., Aldershot. ISBN 0-86078-584-X. DOC108/13443.

Fig. 770 (p. 924) – The observatory in Samarkand (Uzbekistan). Int233/31355 – 31358. http://depts.washington.edu/silkroad/cities/uz/samarkand/obser.html  A comment from Clive J. Grant reads: ‘The Samarkand observatory, for the construction of which Ulugh Beg was primarily responsible, was left untouched when Samarkand was conquered by Uzbeks in 1500. Samarkand was incorporated into the Bukhara Khanate. This is very important, because the city of Bukhara, even then, was becoming a major repository of Islamic written (and, later, printed) works. It grew into a major trading center and thousands of precious scrolls and books traveled the Silk Road to western centers of Islamic learning. In large measure, that is why we have available to us the works of so many 11th- to 15th-century Islamic scholars. Samarkand declined in importance until, for about 50 years (172[?] to 177[?]) it had no inhabitants. Long before then, virtually every scrap of paper, silk scroll, papyrus, vellum, &c. had been removed to the covered souks in Bukhara. Imperial Russia partially resurrected Samarkand as a rail center during the 19th-Century Great Game’. http://www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Extras/Samarkand.html

Fig. 771 (p. 925) – The observatory in Jaipur (Pisces). One of the twelve zodiac instruments. Int233/31326. http://www.travelogues.net/India/images/jaipur/observatory/jaipur_observatory_09.jpg

Fig. 772 (p. 926) – The Caracol in Chichen Itza (Mexico). Drawing by Frederick Catherwood in the book ‘Incidents of Travel in Central America’ (1843), written by John Stephens. DOC 74/8837. An elevation and plan of the Caracol at Chichen Itza is given (p. 177) in: STIERLIN, Henri (1981). The Art of Maya. Evergreen/Benedikt Taschen Verlag GmbH., Fribourg. ISBN 3-8228-9033-2  Or: http://www.world-mysteries.com/alignments/chichen_obs1842.jpg

Fig. 773 (p. 927) – Observatory of Tycho Brahe. BETTEX, Albert (1977). De ontdekking der natuur (Die Entdeckung der Natur; Droemersche Verlagsanstalt Th. Knaur Nachf., München/Zürich), W. Gaade BV., Amerongen/Uitgeverij Septuaginta, Hoofddorp/ICOB CV., Hoofddorp. ISBN 90 6113 028 X. See also the (original) illustration from Tycho Brahe’s book ‘Astronomiae instauratae mechanica’ (Wandsbeck, 1598) in: HENINGER Jr., S.K. (1977). The Cosmographical Glass. Renaissance Diagrams of the Universe. The Huntington Library, San Marino, California. A map of the Insula Hvaena was given in the ‘Grooten Atlas’ published by Joan I Blaeu, 1664 (Atlas van Loon, deel I). DONKERSLOOT-DE VRIJ, Marijke (1992). Drie generaties Blaeu: Amsterdamse cartografie en boekdrukkunst in de zeventiende eeuw. Rijksmuseum ‘Nederlands Scheepvaartmuseum/Walburg Pers, Zutphen. ISBN 90-6011-817-0.   Drawings of the buildings are given in: DRÖSSLER, Rudolf (1990). Astronomie in Stein. Archaologen und Astronomen entratseln alte Bauwerke und Kultstatten. Prisma Verlag, Leipzig. ISBN 3-7354-0019-1. DOC25A/3504; DOC8/900; DOC22/3039; DOC22/3040; DOC22/3038.

Fig. 774 (p. 928) – The Royal Observatory, Greenwich. RCHM, London, V, East London, 1930.

Fig. 775 (p. 930) – The Einstein Tower in Potsdam (Germany). http://www.aip.de/einsteinturm/images/einsteinturm.jpg   And: SHARP, Dennis (1966). Modern Architecture and Expressionism. George Braziller, New York. LCCCN 67-15596. A sketch of the Einstein Tower, Potsdam (1917 – 1921), by Erich Mendelsohn, is given in: LAMPUGNANI, Vittorio M. (Ed.) (1983). The Thames and Hudson Encyclopaedia of 20th-Century Architecture. Droemersche Verlaganstalt/Th. Knauf Nachf. Münich and Zurich/Thames and Hudson, London. For a good general background of the Einstein Tower, see: HENTSCHEL, Klaus (1997). The Einstein Tower. An intertexture of dynamic construction, relativity and astronomy. Stanford University Press, Palo Alto, California. ISBN 0804728240. Int178/24081 – 24084; Int231/31154 – 31157; Int224/31466 – 31475; DOC82/9996; DOC109/13471.

Fig. 776 (p. 931) – Clay tablet from the Uruk Era. Int232/31245. http://www.hartford-hwp.com/image_archive/ue/tablet02.jpg  The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1000 Fifth Avenue, New York noted on thier website  that: ‘Today, about 6,000 proto-cuneiform tablets, with more than 38,000 lines of text, are now known from areas associated with the Uruk culture, while only a few earlier examples are extant. The most popular but not universally accepted theory identifies the Uruk tablets with the Sumerians, a population group that spoke an agglutinative language related to no known linguistic group’. ‘By the middle of the third millenium B.C., cuneiform primarily written on clay tablets was used for a vast array of economic, religious, political, literary, and scholarly documents’.  http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/wrtg/hd_wrtg.htm

Fig. 777 (p. 932) – The Medico-Laurenziana Library in Florence. Plate XX: BURTON, Margaret (1937). Famous Libraries of the World. Their History, Collections and Administrations. Grafton & Co., London. DOC107/13324.

Fig. 778 (p. 933) – ‘De Divisione Naturae’ by Joannis Scoti Erigenae as printed by the Theatro Sheldoniano Press, Oxford (1681). On the frontispiece a representation of the Radcliffe Library, Oxford (1737 – 1749). Courtesy: Koninklijke Bibliotheek, Den Haag. DOC91/11261.

Fig. 779 (p. 934) – Redwood Library, Newport, Rhode Island, 1748 – 1750. A drawing by Marten Kuilman after an illustration (fig. 3.51) in: ROTH, Leland M. (2001). American Architecture. A History. Icon Editions, Westview Press/Perseus Books Group; Boulder, Colorado/Oxford. ISBN 0-8133-3661-9  (Library of Congress, HABS RI 3 – NEWP 15-3). DOC107/13240.

Fig. 780 (p. 935) – The public library in Vancouver (Canada). A drawing by Marten Kuilman. Int230/31041; Int230/31047.

Fig. 781 (p. 937) – The main constituents of a quadralectic communication, as given by Marten Kuilman. The terms in this scheme – like ‘visibility’, ‘invisibility’, ‘space’, ‘time’, ‘division’ and ‘movement’ – should be understood as approximations. ‘Visibility’ is opposed to ‘invisibility’ in lower division (two-fold) thinking, but is a measure for a shift (expressed in a figure) in a higher (quadralectic) setting. The definition of space-time is given as a four-dimensional continuum of one temporal and three spatial coordinates in which any event or physical object is located. Time is no longer independent of the state of motion of the observer. The duration of time depends on a frame of reference in the same way as visibility depends on the choices made by the observer. The division holds the key to the whole interaction in a communication. It provides the ‘knots’ when boundaries of subdivisions coincide in a shift (movement). These Points of Recognition offer the means to validate the subsequent positions. Time-space is an impression of compression and distortion caused by the Doppler Effect. The outcome (tone and/or color) is the representation of  a particular communication (place) at a particular time. The movement has lost its innocence, because there is no precise instant underlying an object’s motion. The position of an observer changes constantly over time and there is no determined position at any time – except the one chosen by the observer. The succession of moments and a determined position in the communication is a construction of a person, which takes the responsibility to define the boundaries.

Fig. 782 (p. 939) – The organisation of Roget’s Thesaurus of English Words and Phrases (1962/1966). Penguin Books Ltd., Harmondsworth, England. This edition is an abridgement of the revised and much enlarged edition published by Longmans Green & Co. In 1962.

Fig. 783 (p. 941) – The sphere of ordinary transfers in a Bush Mekeo village, Papua New Guinea. Fig. 2.1 in: MOSKO, Mark S. (1985). Quadripartite structures. Categories, relations, and homologies in Bush Mekeo culture. Cambridge University Press, Cam-bridge. ISBN 0 521 26452 9. DOC73/8722.

Fig. 784 (p. 942) – A drawing from a bius pustaha  (a bark book describing agricultural rituals) gives two snakes encircling a central bindu matoga (the turned squares). Fig. III.52 in: NIESSEN, S.A. (1985). Motifs of Life in Toba Batak texts and textiles. Proefschrift (Ph.D. thesis) Soc. Wet. Rijks Universiteit, Leiden. 17 January 1985. Offset drukkerij Kanters BV., Amsterdam. DOC18/2514. Given as a ‘mandoedoe’ for protection against a bad omen, see: SCHNITGER, F.M. (1939). Forotten Kingdoms in Sumatra. E.J. Brill, Leiden. DOC18/2527.

Fig. 785 (p. 943) – Territorial division of the island of Ternate. Fig. 4 in: FRAASSEN, van, Christiaan F. (1987). Ternate, de Molukken en de Indo-nesische archipel. Van soa-organisatie en vierdeling: een studie van tradi-tionele samenleving en cultuur in Indonesië. Proefschrift Universiteit van Leiden, 17 december 1987. A good overview of the Malukan society (in Dutch) is given by the same author: FRAASSEN, van, Christiaan F. (1999). Maluku. Ternate en de wereld van de vier bergen. Utrecht. The ‘vier bergen’ (four mountains) are the group of islands Ternate, Tidore, Jailolo and Bacan. See also: ANDAYA, Leonard Y. (1993). The World of Maluku; Eastern Indonesia in the Early Modern Period. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu. There seemed to be some animosity between the authors about ‘the observation that in Maluku the number four signifies totality and perfection and appears to have been a feature of the Austronesian-speaking peoples’ (p. 54 in: ANDAYA, 1993). Van Fraassen (BKI 150: 424) pointed to an ‘equally great significance of the number nine for Moluccans’. The New Zealand-born historian Anthony REID added in his article ‘Maluku Revisited’ (KITLV; 1995) ‘that Malukan society is extremely complex, with dualisms everywhere, fourfold divisions especially pronounced in north Maluku, as in other parts of Indonesia, ninefold and fivefold divisions throughout Central Maluku (the famous ulisiwa and ulilima), and fourfold and sevenfold divisions elsewhere’. Reid brought the authors together in their emphasis ‘that the unity of the Maluku world was maintained by a complex pluralism of twos and especially fours’. DOC73/8767.

Fig. 786 (p. 944) – Map of the forts Toloko and Kaya Merah (Ternate). Fig. 7 in: FRAASSEN, van, Christiaan F. (1987). Op. cit.  Docill 73; 8770. Fort Oranje in Ternate had initially a rough square outline when it was built by Cornelis Matelief in 1607, but was later (c. 1790) improved into a real square. See ‘No 4. Tweede ontwerp eener verbeeterde Versterking van ’t Kasteel Oranje, ter ordre van de Weledelgestrenge Heeren Vaillant, Verhuel en Graevestein’ on the ‘Atlas of Mutual Heritage’ website. This excellent website gives maps, drawings, prints and paintings of locations related to the Dutch East India Company (Verenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie, VOC) and the West-Indische Compagnie (WIC). http://www.nationaalarchief.nl/AMH/detail.aspx?page=dafb&lang=en&id=3186

Fig. 787 (p. 944) – House of Pleasure, Montmartre, plan. From Rameé, Ledoux, pl. 238. VIDLER, Anthony (1990). Claude-Nicolas Ledoux. Architecture and Social Reform at the End of the Ancien Régime. The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts. ISBN 0-262-22032-6 Docill 103; 12797     (Docill 87; 10632). The House of Pleasure – as given in fig. 7.9 by HERSEY, George (1999). The Monumental Impulse. Architecture’s Biological Roots. The MIT Press, Cambridge, Masssachusetts. ISBN 0-262-08274-8 with a reference to Ledoux’s L’Architecture (1804) – is in fact the Oikéma in Chaux.

Fig. 788 (p. 945) – A plan of the basement and ground floor of the Oikéma, Chaux. From Rameé, Ledoux, pl.  241/240. VIDLER, Anthony (1990). Claude-Nicolas Ledoux. Architecture and Social Reform at the End of the Ancien Régime. The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts. ISBN 0-262-22032-6. Docill 103; 12826. A view of the ‘Oikema’ by Ledoux (1785) is given as fig. 107 in: SUMMERSON, John (1983). Die klassische Sprache der Architektur. Vieweg, Braunschweig, Wiesbaden (The Classical Language of Architecture, Thames & Hudson, London, 1980). ISBN 3-528-08763-3. Docill 108; 13596. Joel E. Salt mentioned gender differentiation in a note on ‘The Geography of ‘A Ramble in St. James’s Park’: Geometric Places Creating Female Spaces’. The writing is part of the ‘Grub Street Project’ by Allison Muri, Assistant Professor at the Department of English at the University of Saskatchewan. ‘The Grubstreet Project is a digital edition of 18th-century London. It aims to map the city and its texts to create both a historically accurate visualization of the city’s commerce and communications, and a record of how its authors and artists portrayed it. Grub Street, now subsumed by Milton Street, was both a real place and an abstract idea’. The urban pastoral area of St. James’s Park resembles on a geographical map a vagina and can act as a feminine symbol – although it was not planned that way. The geography of the London streets, on the other hand, are seen as male symbols. http://drc.usask.ca/projects/eng803/joel/index.html and http://drc.usask.ca/projects/eng803/joel/wilmot/wilmot.html

Fig. 789 (p. 946)  – Mosque of Sangha in the Dogon Valley (Mali),  1974. DETHIER, Jean (1981). Des Architectures de Terre. Ou l’avenir d’une tradition millénaire. Centre Georges Pompidou/CCI. Lion, Paris. DOC106/13156. See also: EYCK, Aldo van (1969). A Miracle of Moderation. Pp. 173 – 213: JENCKS, Charles & BAIRD, George (1969). Meaning in Architecture. Barrie & Rockliff, The Cresset Press. SBN 214.66797.9. DOC76/9156/9165. For some Dogon village plans and houses by Aldo van Eyck (courtesy of Hannie van Eyck), see fig. 11.3 and 11.4 in: COLEMAN, Nathaniel (2005). Utopias and Architecture. Routledge, Abingdon, Oxon. ISBN 0-415-70084-1. Docill 113; 14035 – 14036.

Fig. 790 (p. 947) – Traditional housing for single ‘Bozo’ man in the Mopti region of Mali (Maison traditionnelle des celibataires ‘Bozo’ dans un village de la region de Mopti au Mali). DETHIER, Jean (1981). Op. cit. DOC106/13144.

Fig. 791 (p. 951) – A view of the Church of the Holy Trinity (1965 – 1976) by Fritz Wotruba, Wien. Drawing by Marten Kuilman after: http://art.nmu.edu/larson/isit/ladder/wotruba.html  See Plate 29 in: YARWOOD, Doreen (1991). The Architecture of Europe. The Nineteenth and Twentieth Century. Ivan R. Dee, Chicago. ISBN 0-929587-65-0. Int82/11080; DOC74/8895.

Fig. 792 (p. 952) – First-floor plan of the Amsterdam Orphanage. Fig. 11.1 in: COLEMAN, Nathaniel (2005). Op.cit. Docill 113; 14034. STRAUVEN, Francis(1994). Aldo van Eyck. Relativiteit en verbeelding. Meulenhoff, Amsterdam. ISB 90 290 8095 7. Docill 85; 10428

Fig. 793 (p. 953) – The Wheels of Heaven. Kerk en Wereld in Driebergen (Holland) by Aldo van Eijck (1963-64). Docill 85; 10437.  STRAUVEN, Francis (1994). Op. cit. http://www.team10online.org/team10/meetings/1965-berlin.htm  Berlin (Germany). 25-29 September 1965 ‘Between understatement and overdesign.’ Report of a meeting by the Team-10 Group of architects: ‘Van Eyck himself brought along a church design he had submitted for a competition, under the motto ‘The Wheels of Heaven’. The church was designed for the Kerk en Wereld (Church and World) training institute of the Dutch Reformed Church in Driebergen. Sited amid trees, the chapel expresses the ecumenical character of the congregation in a multi-centered space with four focal points disposed along a via sacra running through the building. In this modest project, Van Eyck again illustrated the idea of the aesthetics of number. The Wheels of Heaven was not built, but it was a forerunner of Van Eyck’s later Pastoor van Ars Church in The Hague, which was realized – and visited by Team 10 – in 1974’.

Fig. 794 (p. 954) – Domino-house as a modular unit, 1914. Pl. 12 in: ROWE, Colin (1976). The Mathematics of the Ideal Villa and Other Essays. The MIT Press Cambridge, Massachusetts, and London, England. ISBN 0-262-18077-4. Docill 81; 9872.  The basic structure of the Dom-Ino house. Ouevre complet de 1910 – 1929. FISHMAN, Robert (1977). Urban Utopias in the Twentieth Century. Ebenezer Howard, Frank Lloyd Wright, and Le Corbusier. Basic Books, Inc. Publishers, New York. ISBN 0-465-08933-X. DOC102/12663.

Fig. 795 (p. 954) – Maison Domino. A project by Le Corbusier, 1914. CORBUSIER, Le (1923/1958). Vers une Architecture. Collection de “l’esprit nouveau”. Editions Vincent, Fréal & Cie, Paris. DOC64/7734.

Fig. 796 (p. 955) – The courtroom in the Cité Judiciaire at Nantes by Jean Nouvel. MORGAN, Conway Lloyd (1998). Jean Nouvel. The Elements of Architecture. Thames and Hudson Ltd., London. ISBN 0-500-28089-4. DOC86/10449.

Fig. 797 (p.956) – Ville volante by Georgy Tikhonovich Krutikov (1899 – 1958). http://www.kmtspace.com/krutikov.htm  For the Flying City project, see: http://www.urbannebula.nl/?datatype=page&req=media&id=1016  And also: COOKE, Catherine, et al. (1990). Architectural Drawings of the Russian Avant-Garde. The Museum of Modern Art. ISBN 0-87070-556-3. Int234/31512.

Fig. 798 (p. 958) – Grain silos in Canada. Drawing by Marten Kuilman after: CORBUSIER, Le (1923/1958). Vers une arcitecture. Editions Vincent, Freal & Cie, Paris. DOC64/7727.

Fig. 799 (p. 960) – The position of Volume within the context of the Second Quadrant. Interpretation by the writer.

Fig. 800 (p. 961) – Hilversum Town Hall by Willem Dudok. Fig. 94 in: YARWOOD, Doreen (1991). The Architecture of Europe. The Nineteenth and Twentieth Century. Ivan R. Dee, Chicago. ISBN 0-929587-65-0. DOC74/8900.

Fig. 801 (p. 962) – Villa Dálnoki-Kováts in Budapest by Farkas Molnar, 1932. A drawing by Marten Kuilman. http://www.hung-art.hu/frames-e.html?/english/m/molnar_f/  The ‘Fine Arts in Hungary’ site gives the following biography: ‘Architect. He studied at the Technical University and the Art School in Budapest, then at Bauhaus in Weimar as a pupil of W. Gropius. His constructivist plan of ‘Red Boxhouse’ attracted a lot of attention at a Bauhaus exhibition in 1923. From 1927 onwards he worked in Budapest first together with Pál Ligeti, later on his own and together with József Fischer. He built mostly villas. His works are outstanding buildings of constructivist and functionalist architecture in Hungary. He represented Hungary at CIAM, an international organization of modern architects, and was the leader of the Hungarian CIAM group from 1928 to 1938. His articles published in the Hungarian magazin ‘Tér és Forma’ contributed to the popagation of modern architecture. His major works include villas in Lejtő utca, Harangvirág utca, Lotz Károly utca, Székács utca etc., and the block of flats at 2 Toldy Ferenc utca in Budapest’. ‘ The Red Cube’, a project by Farkas Molnar, is given as plate 23 in: ROWE, Colin (1976). The Mathematics of the Ideal Villa and Other Essays. The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts and London, England. ISBN 0-262-18077-4.  http://moma.org/collection/browse_results.php?criteria=O%3ADE%3AI%3A1|G%3ARE%3AE%3A1&page_number=12&template_id=1&sort_order=1 A linocut ‘Konstruction’ (29 x 29 cm) by Farkas Molnar was recently required by the Museum of Modern Art in New York. Int234/31552; DOC81/9879.

Fig. 802 (p. 963) – Reconstruction of the Metropolis of Britain by Stephen Rowland Pierce (1942). Copyright: RIBA Library Drawings & Archives Collection. See also: http://www.architecture.com/LibraryDRawingsAndPhotographs/Online

Fig. 803 (p. 964) – Chapel of Notre Dame du Haut at Ronchamp, 1954. YARWOOD, Doreen (1991). Op. cit. DOC74/8903. Plan with contour lines of Notre-Dame-du-Haut (Ronchamp). P. 104 in: GRAVES, Michael (1981). Le Corbusier. Selected Drawings. Academy Editions, London. DOC68/8042. A comparison of the Eglise de Ronchamp and the ice hockey stadion of Yale, New Haven, Connecticut (1953 – 1959). Le Corbusier en Eero Saarinen (1910 – 1961). Pl. 45 A et B in: CHAMPIGNEULLE, Bernard & ACHE, Jean (1962). L’Architecture du XXe Siècle. Presses Universitaires de France, Paris. See for the subject of biomorphic architecture also: FEUERSTEIN, Günther (2002) Biomorphic architecture. Menschen- und Tiergestalten in der Architektur. Volume 1.  Edition Axel Menges, Stuttgart/ London. ISBN 9783930698875. DOC73/8713. Ronchamp. ‘Free plastic events’ whose effects none the less depends on their power of reference to know forms. p. 271: COLQUHOUN, Alan (1969). Typology & Design Method. Pp. 267 – 277 in: JENCKS, Charles & BAIRD, George (1969). Meaning in Architecture. Barrie & Rockliff, The Cresset Press. SBN 214.66797.9. DOC76/9166. Notre-Dame-du-Haut, Ronchamp (1950 – 1954) by Le Corbusier. LAMPUGNANI, Vittorio M. (Ed.) (1983). The Thames and Hudson Encyclopaedia of 20th-Century Architecture. Droemersche Verlaganstalt/Th. Knauf Nachf. Münich and Zurich/Thames and Hudson, London. DOC82/9997. Notre Dame du Haut, Ronchamp by Le Corbusier. NORBERG-SCHULZ, Christian (1974). Meaning in Western Architecture. Studio Vista/Electa Editrice, Milano/Praeger Publications, Inc. ISBN 0 289 705699 X. DOC105/12985. Capriccio of Notre-Dame du Haute, Ronchamp, 1981. The architect-artist Tom Mellor (1914 – 1994) turned the pilgrimage church into a ruin, in the style of the eighteenth-century masters such as William Chambers. ‘It is Mellor’s memento mori for architecture, a sobering reminder that not only has the Modernism of Le Corbusier passed away, but that nothing, no matter how beautiful and substantial, lasts forever.’ Fig. 85 in: BINGHAM, Neil; CAROLIN, Clare; COOK, Peter & WILSON, Rob (2004). Fantasy Architecture 1500 –2036. Hayward Gallery Publishing, London. ISBN 1 85332 240 7. DOC88/10788.

Fig. 804 (p. 965) – (Second) Goetheanium in Dornach (Switzerland). DOC77/9366. Zweites Goetheanum, Dornach, 1924 – 1928. Ansicht von Nordwesten. Fig. 357 in: PEHNT, Wolfgang (1998). Die Architektur des Expressionismus. Verlag Gerd Hatje, Ostfildern-Ruit. ISBN 3-7757-0668-2. A plan and longitudinal section of  the Goetheanum I and II are given in: SHARP, Dennis (1966). Modern Architecture and Expressionism. George Braziller, New York. LCCCN 67-15596. DOC109/13502. A grond plan of the first Goetheanum, with a double dome as a meta-morphic-organic shape, is given on p. 10 of:  ZIMMER, Erich (1971/1985). Rudolf Steiner als Architekt von Wohn- und Zweckbauten. Verlag Freies Geistesleben, Stuttgart. ISBN 3-7725-0605-4. DOC60/7294. The second Goetheanum, Dornach (1924 – 1928), by Rudolf Steiner. LAMPUGNANI, Vittorio M. (Ed.) (1983). The Thames and Hudson Encyclopaedia of 20th-Century Architecture. Droemersche Verlaganstalt/Th. Knauf Nachf. Münich and Zurich/Thames and Hudson, London. DOC82/9995.

Fig. 805 (p. 966) – Project of a facade by Wendel Dietterlin. Planche 29 in ‘De Architectura’ (Nüremberg, 1598). Document Bibl. Cantonale, Lugano. CHASTEL, André (1968). La Crise de la Renaissance. 1520 – 1600. Editions d’Art Albert Skira, Genève. Docill 49; 6191

Fig. 806 (p. 967) –  Various forms of facade decoration. James Fergusson (1855). ‘The Illustrated Handbook of Architecture’, 1855. Fig. 168 in: KRUFT, Hanno-Walter (1985/1994). A History of Architectural Theory from Vitruvius to the Present. Zwemmer/Princeton Architectural Press, New York. ISBN 0 0302 00603 6. Docill 30; 4185

Fig. 807 (p. 968) – Façade variations. a – c: from Durand’s book Précis des leçons (1802 – 1805). d: by HERSEY, 1999. HERSEY, George (1999). The Monumental Impulse. Architecture’s Bio-logical Roots. The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts. ISBN 0-262-08274-8.  Illustrations of Durand’s geometrical method are also give by: PÉREZ-GOMEZ, Albert (1983). Architecture and the Crisis of Modern Science. The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts. ISBN 0-262-16091-9. And: VIDLER, Anthony (1990). Claude-Nicolas Ledoux. Architecture and Social Reform at the End of the Ancien Régime. The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts. ISBN 0-262-22032-6. Docill 87; 10636  Docill 82; 9975   Docill 103; 12829

Fig. 808 (p. 968) – La Miniatura (Pasadena), designed by Frank Lloyd Wright, 1923. Also known as The Millard House, because it was built for Alice Millard, a dealer in rare books and antiques. MARCH, Lionel & STEADMAN, Philip (1971). The Geometry of Environment. An Introduction to spatial organization. Methuen & Co., Ltd/RIBA Publ. Ltd. SBN 416 82707 0. DOC3/278. See for a series of photos of the exterior (the house had not been open to the public since 1992): http://www.jimhayes.com/cahome/flw/laminiatura/index.html See also the web site: http://millardhouse.com/  with some pictures of the interior and an essay of its history by Hunter Drohojowska-Philp. A reference to the so-called textile block system, which Wright pursued with a sense of mission between 1922 and 1932, is given in: SWEENEY, Robert L. (1994). Wright in Hollywood. Visions of a New Architecture. The Architectural History Foundation and The MIT Press, Cambridge.

Fig. 809 (p. 969) – Cité Judiciaire, Nantes (France). MORGAN, Conway Lloyd (1998). Jean Nouvel. The Elements of Architecture. Thames and Hudson Ltd., London. ISBN 0-500-28089-4. DOC86/10449.

Fig. 810 (p. 970) – Glass blocks at Maison Cognacq-Jay, Paris.  MORGAN, Conway Lloyd (1998). Op. cit.  DOC86/10447. The House for the Elderly was managed from 1916 to 1983 by the religious Servantes du Sacré-Coeur de Versailles. An extension of 8000 m² was constructed in 1997 – 1998, and a complete renovation of the old building took place by the architect Jean Nouvel from 1998 to 1999.

Fig. 811 (p. 972) – Layout of Karlsruhe (Germany), 1709. Pl. 350 in:  JELLICOE, Geoffrey & Susan (1975/1995). The Landscape of Man. Shaping the Environment from Prehistory to the Present Day. Thames and Hudson Ltd., London. ISBN 0-500-27819-9. DOC35/4804; DOC11/1441 – 1442. Other designs of the 1st fase (1720) and 2nd stage (1750) can be found in: BURKER, Gerald (1971). Towns in the Making. Edward Arnold. ISBN 0 7131 5816 6

Fig. 812 (p. 973) – De Ark van Noach (1962) by Pieter Blom. p. 379/405 in Open Forum 1959-63. DOC85/10434; Int147/19813 – 19815; Int235/31585. A study project for the ‘Arc of Noah’, with a cluster of ten living units, is given in: STRAUVEN, Francis (1994). Aldo van Eyck. Relativiteit en verbeelding. Meulenhoff, Amsterdam. ISB 90 290 8095 7. DOC85/10432.

Fig. 813 (p. 974) – A plan of a Pestalozzi village by Pieter Blom. p. 379/405 in Open Forum 1959-63.

Fig. 814 (p. 975) – Schema of the four arts by Paul Ligeti. Fig. 182 in: LIGETI, Paul (1931). Der Weg aus dem Chaos: Eine Deutung des Welt-geschehens aus dem Rhythmus der Kunstentwicklung. Verlag Georg D.W. Callwey, München.  DOC105/13076. See also: HEYNINCKX, Rajesh (2007). Obscure(d) Modernism. The Aesthetics of the architect Pal Ligeti. Presentation paper on the Symposium Literature, Aesthetics and the Philosophy of History. Birmingham, University of Birmingham, 19 januari 2007.

Fig. 815 (p. 977) – Wilhelm Ostwald (1853 – 1932), pioneer in the organisation of knowledge. http://www.geocities.com/bioelectrochemistry/ostwald.htm  Ostwald studied the color sensations, which can be either achromatic (black and white) or chromatic. The latter consists of the four primary hues (color content): yellow, red, blue, and green. He devised a color circle equator with twenty-four positions. Ostwald was against the atomic theory. His alternative was called energism. He claimed that energy and not matter was fundamental to the universe. Energism holds that all natural processes are transformations of energy. It was seen as the ultimate monism. Int97/13023 – 13030; Int243/32612 – 32616

Fig. 816 (p. 978) – Baptistière Saint Jean at Poitiers (France). Drawing by Marten Kuilman after a photograph in: JACOUPY, Jacqueline (1956). Le Poitou. Vendée – Deux-Sèvres-Vienne. B. Arthaud.

Fig. 817 (p. 981) – Three forms of rhythmic ornaments.  ‘Tabelle zur Veranschaulichung der inneren Verwandschaft verschiedener Ornamente und zur Darstellung der Beziehung ornamentaler Grundform zu möglichen Variationen’. A. Einfache Reihung; B. Reihung mit Wechsel; C. Reihung mit Überkreuzung. Pp. 34 – 35 in: WERSIN, von, Wolfgang (1940). Das elementare Ornament und seine Gesetzlichkeit. Eine Morphologie des Ornaments. Müller-Grah, Walter (Lichtbilder) & von Wersin, Herthe (Text-zeichnungen). Otto Maier Verlag, Ravensburg. DOC60/7310.

Fig. 818 (p. 982) – Mosaic of baked clay seals from Uruk, Babylon. Second half of the fourth millennium BC. Staatliche (Pergamon) Museum in Berlin. Fig. 53 in: WERSIN, von, Wolfgang (1940). Op. cit. DOC60/7321.

Fig. 819 (p. 983) – Carolingian motif in Ilmmünster (south of Pfaffenhofen). Around 800 AD. Bayr. Nat. Museum, München. Fig. 117 in: WERSIN, von, Wolfgang (1940). Op. cit.
DOC60/7340.

Fig. 820 (p. 987) – Dynamic tendencies in basic architectural shapes. WERSIN, von, Wolfgang (1940). Op. cit. DOC60/after 7309.

Fig. 821 (p. 988) – Drawings by Adolf Wölffli (1864 – 1930). Int235/31612 – 31620. Left:  Zinnsrechnung, 1912. Right: Wein, Fennin. Oliander. Karolina-Käller, 1914. See also: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/19/WolfliB  See also the site of the Kunst Museum Bern: http://www.adolfwoelfli.ch

Fig. 822 (p. 990) – The CF-values for the life cycle of Michelangelo by Marten Kuilman. The computer program to retrieve these data was written by Cavesoft (1983, H.D. Kuilman) in the computer language Basic.

Fig. 823 (p. 991) – David by Michelangelo and the visible visibility area (X) of his life between 1475 – 1564. Int72/9687. http://www.michelangelo.com/buon/bio-splash.html

Fig. 824 (p. 993) – The style periods in art and craft as given on a CF-graph of the European cultural history. The visible visibility period (X) of Europe-as-a-cultural-unit is assumed to be from 750 – 2250. This interpretation is by Marten Kuilman and was suggested in 2009 (= Observational Present). The aim of the figure is to visualize a relation between the nature of the various style periods and their position on the CF-graph. It shows that Europe reached its first act of self-realization in the Romanesque period (1050). The Gothic period established the visibility (and identity) in the first part of the Third Quadrant (1200 – 1500). The Pivotal Point in the year 1500 was a notable division point, as was shown in the life of Michelangelo and the unfolding of the Renaissance. The second part of the Third Quadrant  (1500 – 1800) indicated a further search for  identity in the realm of oppositional thinking. The Baroque (and Rococo) and later the Neoclassicistic architecture proved to be two practical ways to reach that goal. The former is a quest into exuberance and the latter comprised a backwards looking inquiry into the achievements of Greek and Roman classical architecture. Both ‘Third Quadrant’ actions aimed at – and finally reached at the end of the eighteenth century – the ‘deeper’ world of the Fourth Quadrant when the shackles of oppositional thinking could be thrown off. The Romantic movement was a return to a sense of awareness, which had been lost in the European cultural history since 1200 AD. This knowledge is now summarized – some two hundred years after the Fourth Quadrant started in 1800 – in the quadralectic way of seeing.

Fig. 825 (p. 999) – The re-interpretation of the Aristotelian concepts by: HARGITAI, R; FARKAS, Ö; ROPOLYI, L; VERES, G. & VANKó, G. (1995). Tetralectics – An approach to postmodern logic. Eötvös University, Budapest (Hungary). Presented at the ‘Einstein meets Magritte’ Con-ference, Brussels, Belgium, May 29 – June 3, 1995. Published in Symmetry: Culture and Science, 8 (3-4),  295-313, 1997.

Fig. 826 (p. 1006)  – The numerical sequences of 1 2 3 4 can be arranged in twenty-four groupings.

Fig. 827 (p. 1006) – The shift of the classical sequence 1 2 3 4 along itself.

Fig. 828 (p. 1007) – A shift (to the left) of the sequence 1 3 2 4, which give the sum totals of 0 8 4 8.

Fig. 829 (p. 1007) – The distribution of the A series and the B-series (bold print) in the twenty-four groupings of the four division.

Fig. 830 (p. 1008) – An example of the difference between a shift (within the classical ranking order 1 2 3 4) of equal and un-equal-sized four divisions.

Fig. 831 (p. 1009)     – A graphic representation of the approach (from the left) of a  Minor or Small Part (SP) to the First Quadrant of a Major or Large Part (LP).

Fig. 832 (p. 1010)  – A calculation of the sum of the communication coefficients (CC) over the communication trajec-tory (CT).

Fig. 833 (p. 1011) – A Small Part (SP) approaches a Large part (LP) from the left and the boundary of the third and fourth quadrant of the Minor (SP) coincides with the beginning of the first quadrant of the Major (LP).

Fig. 834 (p. 1011) – The calculation of the CF-value when a Small Part (SP) moves along a Large Part (LP) from left to right.

Fig. 835 (p. 1012) – A small four-division SP (1-4) shifts along a large four-division (LP) to the right.

Fig. 836 (p. 1013) – The calculation of the CF-value in a hypothetical linear shift-model between two four-divisions.

Fig. 837 (p. 1014) – The CF-values of a complete shift of a Small Part (SP) along a Large Part (LP), moving from left to right.

Fig. 838 (p. 1015) – The thirty-two (32) basic situations in a shift between two abstract four-divisions.

Fig. 839 (p. 1016) – A dynamic SP (Small Part) moves from right to left along a static LP (Larger Part).

Fig. 840 (p. 1017) – The complete shift of a Small Part (SP) along a Large Part (LP), moving from right to left.

Fig. 841 (p. 1018) – An overview of the four possibilities of movement in the interaction between a Large Part (LP) and a Small Part (SP).

Fig. 842 (p. 1018) – The four possibilities of shift between two four-divi-sions.

Fig. 843 (p. 1020) – The complete shift of a Small Part (SP) along a Large Part (LP) moving from left to right.

Fig. 844 (p. 1021) – Thirty-two (32) basic situations in the shift between two abstract four-divisions, using the B-sequence 0 8 4 8 as a calculation unit.

Fig. 845 (p. 1022) – The complete shift of a Small Part (SP) along a Large Part (LP) moving from right to left.

Fig. 846 (p. 1024) – The Universal Communication Sequence (UCS) drawn as a graph.

Fig. 847 (p. 1025) – The difference of the CF-graph as based on an equal contribution of the two basic standard sequences (FSS and SSS) and a pro-rata (1: 2) contribution of these sequences to the result of the Universal Communication Sequence (UCS).

Fig. 848 (p. 1026) – The calculations of the weighted averages of the pro-rata distribution of the two CF-sequences.

Fig. 849 (p. 1027) – This diagrammatic scheme illustrates the intellec-tual journey into a comprehensive communication based on a four-fold division.

Fig. 850 (p. 1029)  – An overview of the various important moments at the start of a four-fold communication.

Fig. 851 (p. 1030) – A graphic expression shows the comparison between the areas of empirical visibility in a dua-listic and quadralectic environment

Fig. 852 (p. 1031) – The CF-graph with the visible visibility area X and the various deflection points.

Fig. 853 (p. 1033) – The CF-graph of a theoretical three-division.

Fig. 854 (p. 1034) – The universal CF-graph of a communication based on the five division.

Fig. 855 (p. 1175) – A flying square above King’s Cross in London as envisaged by Charles Glover in 1931.  http://www.urbannebula.nl/?datatype=visualization&req=date&id=1914-1942

Fig. 856 (p. 1195) – The author at the welcome sign of Quadra Island, British Columbia (Canada) on the 7th of August 2005.

Advertenties

Een reactie op 9.2. Illustrations 405 – 856

  1. Alyce Prado zegt:

    excellent post, very informative. I ponder why the opposite specialists of this sector don’t notice this. You must continue your writing. I’m sure, you have a huge readers’ base already!

Geef een reactie

Vul je gegevens in of klik op een icoon om in te loggen.

WordPress.com logo

Je reageert onder je WordPress.com account. Log uit / Bijwerken )

Twitter-afbeelding

Je reageert onder je Twitter account. Log uit / Bijwerken )

Facebook foto

Je reageert onder je Facebook account. Log uit / Bijwerken )

Google+ photo

Je reageert onder je Google+ account. Log uit / Bijwerken )

Verbinden met %s