9.1. Illustrations 1 – 404

  • The ‘DOC’ numbers refer to the Documentary Illustrations, a collection of (book) illustrations related to the four-fold, which were sampled by the author from 1986 onwards. The first number indicates the book of the series, the second points to the figure. The sets of these DOC numbers can be found on Flickr – Quadralectics – http://http://www.flickr.com/photos/quadralectics
  • The ‘Int’ numbers refer to the collection of printed pages from the Internet, which were sampled by the author from September 1999 onwards. The first number indicates the book of the series, the second points to the page.

qa2

The page numbers between brackets refer to the printed version of the book ‘Quadralectic Architecture. A Survey of Tetradic Testimonials in Architecture‘ (Part 1/2). Falcon Press, Heemstede. ISBN 978-90-814420-0-8 by Marten Kuilman (2011).

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Fig. 1 (p. 6) – Liebfrauenkirche in Kalundborg (Denmark). The church was built around 1170 in the ‘Vierstützenbau’. Fig. 39 in: GÖTZ, Wolfgang (1968). Zentralbau und Zentralbautendenz in der Gotischen Architektur. Gebr. Mann Verlag GmbH., Berlin. DOC 75/9001.

Capital (p. 9) – The capital A. Geoffrey Tory – Champ Fleury, 1529. According to Tory the transverse beam of the A covers the chastity. P. 55 in: LEWIS, John N.C. (1970). Anatomy of Printing. The Influences of Art and History on its Design. Faber and Faber Limited, London.ISBN 0 571 08768 X. DOC51/6417.

Fig. 2 (p. 14) – The CF-graph. KUILMAN, Marten (1986). Isagoge (unpublished). See also Chapter 7. The Quadralectic Theory in the present book (p. 1005).

Fig. 3 (p. 16) – Burgh, southwestern Holland (Zeeland). P. 57 in: DON, Peter (1985). Kunstreisboek Zeeland. P.N. van Kampen & Zoon (Unieboek bv), Weesp. ISBN 90-609 1248 9.

Fig. 4 (p. 17) – Circular architectural structures and/or defense systems. ALLCROFT, A. Hadrian (1908). Earthwork of England. Prehistoric, Roman, Saxon, Danish, Norman, and Mediaeval. MacMillan and Co., Ltd, London. DOC67/7961/7964.

Fig. 5 (p. 18) – The square form of various Roman castra in England. ALLCROFT, A. Hadrian (1908). Op cit. DOC67/7966/7967/7970.

Fig. 6 (p. 19) – The Good Architect. From: Fol. 283 in : Philibert Delorme – Le Premier Tome de L’Architecture, Paris. (facs. ed. Ridgewood, 1964). In: MacDOUGALL, Elisabeth B & MILLER, Naomi (1977). Fons Sapientiae. Garden Fountains in Illustrated Books. Sixteenth-eighteenth Centuries. Dumbarton Oaks, Washington D.C. ISBN 0-88402-073-8  Also in: WIEBENSON, Dora (1982)(Ed). Architectural Theory and Practice from Alberti to Ledoux. Architectural Publications, Inc./University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-9608208-0-9. DOC71/8450.

Fig.  7 (p. 21) Map of the Palace of Diocletian in Spalato (Split). BOARDMAN, John (Ed.) (1993). The Oxford History of Classical Art. Oxford University Press, Oxford. ISBN 0-19-81433386-9   See also: MARASOVIC, J. & MARASOVIC, T. (1969). Der Palast des Diokletian. Verlag Anton Schroll & Co., Wien/München. A reconstruction of the palace of Diocletian in Split by Ernest Hébrard was  given in: E. Hébrard and J. Zeiller, Spalato, le Palais de Dioclétien, Paris, 1912. The earliest representation was given by: Robert ADAM (1764). Ruins of the Palace at Spalatro. Pl. IV.http://digicoll.library.wisc.edu/cgi-bin/DLDecArts/DLDecArts-idx?id=DLDecArts.AdamRuins  An engraving by F. Patton in: Robert Adam (1764). Ruins of the Palace of Diocletian and an engraving by Desmaisons from L. Cassas and J. Lavallée (1802). Voyage pittoresque (Paris) is given in: McCORMICK, Thomas J. (1990). Charles-Louis Clérisseau and the Genesis of Neo-Classicism. The Architectural History Foundation, Inc. New York. The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts. ISBN 0-262-13262-1 and fig. 1 in: PEVSNER, Nikolaus (1943/1961). An Outline of European Architecture. Penguin Books Ltd./Pelican Books, Harmondsworth, Middlesex. And: GATES, Charles (2003). Ancient Cities. The archaeology of urban life in the Ancient Near East and Egypt, Greece and Rome. Routledge, London. ISBN 0-415-01895 and LEFAIVRE, Liane & TZONIS, Alexander (2004). The Emergence of Modern Architecture. A documentary history from 1000 to 1810. Routledge, New York, ISBN 0-415-26025-6   And as fig. 61 in: KUNOTH, George (1956). Die Historische Architektur Fischers von Erlach. Verlag L. Schwann, Düsseldorf. See – with different details in the southern part of the palace – the illustration of the ‘Palace of Diocletian: Spalato’ in the excellent illustrated book of: FLETCHER, Banister (1975). A History of Architecture (revised by J.C. Palmer). The Athlone Press, University of London. London. SBN 0 485 55001 6  And: NORBERG-SCHULZ, Christian (1974). Meaning in Western Architecture. Studio Vista/Electa Editrice, Milano/Praeger Publications, Inc. ISBN 0 2889 705699 X. DOC31/4303 ; DOC82/10028 ; DOC87/ 10594; DOC95/11737; DOC89/10924/10926; DOC101/12447; DOC104/12950.

Fig. 8 (p. 23) – The year of the four Emperors. GREENHALGH, P.A.L. (1975). The Year of the Four Emperors. Weidenfeld and Nicolson, London. ISBN 0 297 76876 X. DOC62/7496 Galba; 7497 Otho; 7498 Vitellius; 7499 Vespasian.

Fig. 9 (p. 25) – Phantasy landscape. From: All the Proprytees of Thynges, Westminster, 1495, an edition of De proprietatibus rerum by Bartholomaeus Angelicus (13th century). In: CAMUSSO, Lorenzo (1990). Reisboek Europa 1492. Sdu Uitgeverij, Den Haag. ISBN 90 12 06552 6. DOC36/4902.

Fig. 10 (p. 26) – Farm with seven trees. PLOKKER, J.H. (1962). Geschonden Beeld. Beeldende expressie bij schizophrenen. Mouton & Co., ‘s-Gravenhage. DOC49/6275

Fig. 11 (p.27) – Arcadian meadow in Ermenonville. Illustration by Rene de Girardin’s  ‘Promenade ou itineraire des jardins d’Ermenonville’, (1788). SCHAMA, Simon (1995) Landscape and Memory. Harper Collins Pu-blishers, London. ISBN 0 00 215897 3. DOC29/4097.

Fig. 13 (p. 30) – The development of a landscape. HIPPLE, Walter John, Jr. (1957). The Beautiful, The Sublime, & The Picturesque In Eigtheenth-Century British Aesthetic Theory. The Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale. p.  202/203: Aquatints from William Gilpin’s Three Essays (1792). p. 266/267: Engravings by Thomas Hearne in Richard Payne Knight’s The Landscape (1794) (not 1749 as stated). The lower two engravings by Thomas Hearne (1744 – 1817) (not Hearn) show – on the left – a house and garden in the manner of Capability Brown. Payne Knight criticized the ‘placid and unadventurous scene as essentially unnatural’. His own, more picturesque, approach is visualized in the engraving to the right. The emphasis is more on the ‘nature and the architectural qualities of roughness, variety and intricacy.’ Page 76 in: WATKIN, David (1982). The English Vision. The Picturesque in Architecture, Landscape and Garden Design. John Murray (Publishers) Ltd., London. ISBN 0 7195 3972 2   Also in: JELLICOE, Geoffrey & Susan (1975/1995). The Landscape of Man. Shaping the Environment from Prehistory to the Present Day. Thames and Hudson Ltd., London. ISBN 0-500-27819-9- DOC35/4806/4808 – 4811. See for a selected bibliography on landscape architecture: JOHN, Richard (2000). ARC 404 – Introduction to landscape architecture. University of Miami School of Architecture; Fall 2000. http://intranet.arc.miami.edu/rjohn/ARC – 404/ARC404-Bibliography.htm

Fig. 14 (p. 31) – An example of a composition of clouds by Alexander Cozens. In: Alexander Cozens – A New Method of Assisting the Invention in Drawing Original Compositions of Landscape (London, 1785). Fig. 20 in: DAMISCH, Hubert (1991). De dienst van de wolken. Pp. 35 – 51 in: ALEXANDRESCU, Sorin; PARRET, Herman & QUIK, Ton (Ed.) (1991). Hemel & Aarde. Werelden van Verbeelding. Uitgeverij John Benjamins, Amsterdam. ISBN 90-272-2089-1. DOC37/4973.

Fig. 15 (p. 32) – Landscape with pleasure garden, Paul Klee (1924). CALABRESE, Omar (1991). Imaginaire geografie. Pp. 59 – 66 in: CALVINO, Italo (1991). Reis langs de archipel die niet bestaat (1991). Pp. 67 – 69 in: ALEXANDRESCU, Sorin; PARRET, Herman & QUIK, Ton (Ed.) (1991). Op. cit. DOC37/4987.

Fig. 16 (p. 34) – Egyptian garden. JELLICOE, Geoffrey & Susan (1975/1995). The Landscape of Man. Shaping the Environment from Prehistory to the Present Day. Thames and Hudson Ltd., London. ISBN 0-500-27819-9. DOC35/4793.

Fig. 17 (p. 35) –  A herbularius or herb garden. DUFT, Johannes 91972). Notker der Arzt. Klostermedizin und Münchsarzt im frühmittelalterlichen St, Gallen. Verlag der Buchdruckerei Ostschweiz AG, St. Gallen. DOC21/3030.

Fig. 18 (p. 36) – The Umayyad garden in Rusafa, Syria. Fig. 3 in: RUGGLES, D. Fairchild (2000). Gardens, landscape, and vision in the palaces of Islamic Spain. The Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park. ISBN 0-271-01851-8. DOC69/8202.

Fig. 19 (p. 37) – An imagenary garden landscape. From Lorenz Stör’s ‘Geometria et Perspectiva’, printed by Hans Rogel in 1567 in Augsburg. MELOT, Michel (1984). The Art of Illustration. Editions d’Art Albert Skira S.A.. Geneva/Rizzoli International Publications, Inc. New York. ISBN 0-8478-0558-1 – DOC8/970. This woodcut is number six of a series of eleven. Its shows a twin (stellated) tetraeder, known as Keplers ‘Stella octangula’. The figure was also published by Wenzel Jamnitzer in 1568 and was rediscovered by Kepler in 1619 (and published in his ‘Harmonice Mundi’). Two stella octangula featured in M.C. Echer’s wood engraving ‘Stars’ (1948). See also: http://www.mathe.tu-freiberg.de/~hebisch/cafe/stoer/geometria6.html

Fig. 20 (p. 38) – The Orto Botanico in Padua. A hortus conclusus offers protection against a hostile outer world. Francesco Bonafede founded the Orto Botanico on the 29th of May 1545 as part of the cloister St. Giustina. The ringed wall has a diameter of eighty-four meters and got a marble balustrade in the eighteenth century. The most famous plant is La Palma di Goethe, noticed by Goethe, who visited the garden on the 26th of September 1786. The palm was then already two centuries old. This map dated from 1591 and was given in: PORRO, G. (1591). L’Horto de I semplici di Padova, Venice. And: ZONNEVELD, van, Peter (1985). Aardse Paradijzen. Botanische tuinen in Europa en Azië. Kwadraat, Utrecht. ISBN 90 6481 040 0  and in: LAZZARO, Claudia (1990). The Italian Renaissance Garden. From the Conventions of Planting, Design, and Ornament to the Grand Gardens of Sixteenth-Century Central Italy. Yale University Press, New Haven and London. ISBN 0-300-04765-7  Also in: ROSSI SPADEA, Marcella (1995). Orti Botanici. Una Gloria Italiana. Pp. 98 – 102 in: Il Carabiniere. VANNUCCHI, A. (Ed.). Roma/Gennaio 1995. DOC69/8180; DOC69/8254; VIER, p. 407; fig. 262.

Fig. 21 (p. 39) – The gardens of Villa d’Este in Tivoli. Designed in 1550 by Pirro Ligorio (c. 1514 – 1583). PANNEKOEK, G.J. & SCHIPPER, J.J. (1942). Ontwerpen, aanleggen en beplanten van tuinen. N.V. Uitgeversmaatschappij ‘Kosmos’, Amsterdam. Originally published in: Pietro FERRERIO (1655). Palazzi di Roma di pui celebri architetti… Rome. After Duperac engraving, 1573. Also in: REYNOLDS, Donald M. (1989). Selected Lectures of Rudolf Wittkower. The Impact of Non-European Civilizations on the Art of the West, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. ISBN 0-521-30508-X and Pl. 252 in: JELLICOE, Geoffrey & Susan (1975/1995). The Landscape of Man. Shaping the Environment from Prehistory to the Present Day. Thames and Hudson Ltd., London. ISBN 0-500-27819-9. DOC64/7750; DOC25A/3479; DOC35/4800.

Fig. 22 (p. 40) – The Horti Farnesiani (Rome). PANNEKOEK, G.J. & SCHIPPER, J.J. (1942). Op. cit. DOC64/7748.

Fig. 23 (p. 41) – A view of the Grotto in the gardens of the Hortus Palatinus. Salomon de Caus (1620) – Hortus Palatinus. WALTHER, Gerhard (1990) – Der Heidelberger Schlossgarten. Heidelberg, Heidelberger Verlagsanstalt. Int77/10401. http://www.zum.de/Faecher/G/BW/Landeskunde/rhein/hd/grott2.htm

Fig. 24 (p. 42) – A view of the grotto underneath Alexander Pope’s villa. HUSSEY, Christopher (1967). English Gardens and Landscapes 1700 – 1750. Country Life Limited, London. DOC67/7932.

Fig. 25 (p. 43) – A garden design by Vredeman de Vries, around 1568. PANNEKOEK, G.J. & SCHIPPER, J.J. (1942). Op. cit. Also as: Water Games set before Town Garden by Jan Vredeman de Vries – Hortorum Viridariorum, Antwerp, 1583 in: MacDOUGALL, Elisabeth B & MILLER, Naomi (1977). Fons Sapientiae. Garden Fountains in Illustrated Books. Sixteenth-eighteenth Centuries. Dumbarton Oaks, Washington D.C. ISBN 0-88402-073-8. DOC64/7749; DOC70/8407.

Fig. 26 (p. 44) – Knots. In: Thomas Hyll (1577). The Gardeners labyrinth. JACQUES, David (1999). The Compartiment System in Tudor England. In: Garden History. The Journal of the Garden History Society, Vol. 27, No. 1. DOC62/7468.

Fig. 27 (p. 45) – The ‘foure quarters’. In: ‘The English Husbandman’ (1613) by Gervase Markham. JACQUES, David (1999). Op. cit. DOC62/7460.

Fig. 28 (p. 46) – The Tuileries Gardens in Paris. Jacques Androuet du Cerceau – The Tuileries Gardens. Only the right half in: JACQUES, David (1999). Op. cit. A good description of the history of the Tuileries is given in : WOODBRIDGE, Kenneth (1986). Princely Gardens. The origins and development of the French formal style. Thames and Hudson, London. ISBN 0-500-01357-8. DOC62/7467; DOC70/8343.

Fig. 29 (p. 47) – The French formal garden of Louis XIV in Versailles, 1746. By Andre LeNotre, 1746; Fig. 11 in: REPS, John W. (1965/1969). Town Planning in Frontier America. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey. LCCN 68-20877.  Also as Plate 11 in: GALANTAY, Ervin Y. (1979). New Towns: Antiquity to the Present. George Braziller, New York. ISBN 0-8076-0766-5. DOC75/9078; DOC94/11658.

Fig. 30 (p. 48) – The Garden of Eden. Crisp – Medieval Gardens. Fig. 117 in: MILLER, Naomi (1977). French Renaissance Fountains. Garland Publishing, Inc., New York/London. ISBN 0-8240-2713-2. DOC12/1516.

Fig 31 (p. 50) – The Gardens of Isfahan. JELLICOE, Geoffrey & Susan (1975/1995). The Landscape of Man. Shaping the Environment from Prehistory to the Present Day. Thames and Hudson Ltd., London. ISBN 0-500-27819-9 – DOC35/4786. Other documentation related to the city of Isfahan: The palace precinct. Fig. 60 in: KOSTOF, Spiro (1992). The City Assembled. The Elements of Urban Form Through History. Thames and Hudson Ltd., London. ISBN 0-500-34124-9 – DOC99/12205. Plan of civic center, Isfahan, Persia. Plate 8 in: GALANTAY, Ervin Y. (1979). New Towns: Antiquity to the Present. George Braziller, New York. ISBN 0-8076-0766-5 – DOC94/11655. The Meidan-i-Schah square in Isfahan. WŰRFEL, Kurt (1974). Isfahan, nisf-i-dschahan, das ist die Hälfte der Welt. Raggi Verlag, Küsnacht-Zürich. – DOC86/10544. The city square of Isfahan. Page 80 in: SPLUNTER, van, Job (1994). Esoterie & Architectuur. Speurtocht naar het ontstaan van vormen. Elmar BV, Rijswijk. ISBN 90389 02018 – DOC79/9631. Plan of the city of Isfahan, Iran. NADJI, Mehdi (2003). Die Dreiunddreissigbogenbrücke in Isfahan: metrologisches Normsystem und Symbol für Staatsdoktrin. Pp. 175 – 188 in: Architectura. Zeitschrift für Geschichte der Baukunst. Journal of the History of Architecture. Band 33/Vol. 2. – DOC76/9209. Isfahan, Iran. Fig. 3-13 in: TRANCIK, Roger (1986). Finding Lost Space. Theories of Urban Design. Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, New York. ISBN 0-442-28399-7. DOC70/8312.

Fig. 32 (p. 51) – The garden layout of the Taj Mahal in Agra (India). From a drawing by Colonel Hodgson. Page 18 in: VILLIERS-STUART, Constance M. (1929). Spanish Gardens. Their History, Types and Features. B.T. Batsford, London. – DOC69/8265.  See also: The Taj Mahal at Agra – A plan made in 1828 by the Surveyor General of India. Given as fig. 73 in: JELLICOE, Geoffrey & Susan (1975/1995). Op. cit. –DOC35/4789. And: Gardens of the Taj Mahal. ANSINK, Jeroen (1997). Taj Mahal. Voor vrouwen en Allah. EOS, nr. 9, Sept. 1997. DOC39/5205.

Fig. 33 (p. 52) – Sir Edwin (‘Ned’) Lutyens (1869 – 1944). Edwin Lutyens at Knebworth House, Hertfordshire, England.- Int 82/10982   Int84/11310-11311 (Books on Edwin Lutyens);  Int 17086. www.lazuliltd.com/…/2009/06/edwin_lutyens.jpg

Fig. 34 (p. 53) – The church of S. Carlo alle Quattro Fontane in Rome. Images of Rome by Kalervo Kosmimies. http://www2.siba.fi/~kkoskim/rooma/kuvat/fald312c.jpg  See for a good background of this church the article of:CONNERS, Joseph (1999). Un teorema sacro. San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane. Pp. 459-95 in: KAHN-Rossi, Manuela & FRANCIOLLI, Marco (Eds.). Il giovane Borromini: dagli a San Carlino. Museo Cantonale d’Arte (September-November 1999). http://www.columbia.edu/~jc65/cvlinks/teorema.htm  Int70/9420 – 9427; Int70/9438 – 9444;  Int86/11593 – 11594   Int86/11598 – 11611.

Fig. 35 (p. 54) – The Fountain of the Four Rivers in Rome. Engraving  by Giuseppi Vasi, Magnificenze di Roma antica e moderna, 1752, Vol. II. SCHAMA, Simon (1995). Landscape and Memory. Harper Collins Publishers, London. ISBN 0 00 215897 3. DOC29/4091.

Fig. 36 (p. 55) – Source of Mercurius.  ROOB, Alexander (1997). Alchemie & Mystiek. Het Hermetisch Museum. Benedikt Taschen Verlag GmbH. Librero Nederland, Hedel. ISBN 3-8228-9199-1. DOC43/5631.

Fig. 37 (p. 56) – A sketch of Jacob’s well in Sichem. From Adamnan – De Locis Sanctis, Vienna Cod. 458, f17v. Book II, ch. 20-21. MEEHAN, Denis (1958). Adamnan’s De Locis Sanctis. Scriptores Latini Hiberniae. Volume III. The Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, Dublin. DOC43/5576; DOC73/8692. A simple version of the ‘Fons Jacob’ and ‘Ec-cl-e-sia’ is given as fig. 28 in: DAVIES, J.G. (1952). The Origin and Development of Early Christian Church Architecture. SCM Press Ltd., London.

Fig. 38 (p. 57) – The Trevi Fountain in Rome.  A drawing by Marten Kuilman after: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/aa/Trevi_fountain.jpg RASMUSSEN, Steen E. (1959). Experiencing Architecture. Chapman & Hall, London. Int99/13301; Int151/20349; DOC78/9410.

Fig. 39 (p. 58) – Courtyard Fountain in Son Raxo, Majorca. VILLIERS-STUART, Constance M. (1929). Spanish Gardens. Their History, Types and Features. B.T. Batsford, London. DOC69/8276.

Fig. 40 (p. 59) – Streams. Oberlin, Ohio by Athena Tacha. JELLICOE, Geoffrey & Susan (1975/1995). The Landscape of Man. Shaping the Environment from Prehistory to the Present Day. Thames and Hudson Ltd., London. ISBN 0-500-27819-9  Also in: http://www.sculpturecenter.org/oosi/sculpture.asp?SID=192 and http://www.oberlin.edu/faculty/rspear/streams.jpg – DOC35/4817; Int52/7035.

Fig. 41 (p. 60) – Fountain by Marcel Duchamp, 1917/1964. Drawing by Marten Kuilman after an illustration given in: Collections: recent acquisitions, 2000. San Francisco Museum of Modern Art (SFMOMA). Int89/11932-11932  http://www.sfmoma.org/collections/recent_acquisitions/ma_coll_duchamp.html

Fig. 42 (p. 62) – The baptistery of St. John Lateran in Rome. DAVIES, J. Gordon (1962). The Architectural Setting of Baptism. Barrie and Rockliff, London. And: HAUTECOEUR, Louis (1954). Mystique et Architecture. Symbolisme du cercle et de la coupole. Editions A. et J. Picard et Cie, Paris. DOC72/8568; DOC65/7766.

Fig. 43 (p. 63) – The quatrefoil font in the baptistery at Kélibia in Tunesia. DAVIES, J.Gordon (1962). Op. cit. Key p. 54. DOC72/8564.

Fig. 44 (p. 64) – An overview of various baptisteria in France. MYERS, B.S. & COPPLESTONE, T. (Ed.) (1985). Landmarks of Western Art. The Hamlyn Publishing Group Ltd.,/Newnes Books for W.H. Smith.

Fig. 45 (p. 65) – The four different forms in the development of a geometrical building. Pp. 200 – 201 in: WEDEPOHL, Edgar (1967). Eumetria. Das Glück der Proportionen. Mass-grund und Grundmass in der Baugeschichte. Beitrage zur musischen Geo-metrie. Verlag Richard Bacht GmbH., Essen. DOC19/2804.

Fig. 46 (p. 66) – Various baptisteria in Upper Italy. P. 418 in: KLING, Manuel (1988). Einige Gliederungsformen am Aussenbau zehn anderer romanischer Baptisterien in Oberitalien. Pp. 415 – 422 in: MUCH, Franz J. (1988). Baukunst des Mittelalters in Europa. Hans Erich Kubach zum 75. Geburtstag. Stuttgarter Gesellschaft für Kunst und Denk-malpflege. Stuttgart 1988. ISBN 3-926168-00-5 – DOC71/8478. The excellent website Baptisteria Sacra with an Iconographic Index of Baptismal Fonts (BSI) – a project of the University of Toronto – does not give information on Italian baptisteria (as yet). http://www.library.utoronto.ca/bsi/frames_db_profile.html

Fig. 47 (p. 69) – A map of the western part of the Labyrinth. MATTHEWS, W.H. (1922/1970). Mazes and Labyrinths. Their History and Development. Dover Books, New York. Int91/12259 – 12264. Original in: PETRIE, Flinders (1912). The Labyrinth, Gerzeh and Mazghuneh. This book is avaible on the Internet: PETRIE, W. M. Flinders (1883). The Pyramids and Temples of Gizeh. 1st ed. London: Field and Tuer/Scribner & Welford, New York. Republished online at The Pyramids and Temples of Gizeh Online. Ed. Ronald Birdsall, 2003. Rev. December 2, 2008 http://www.ronaldbirdsall.com/gizeh

Fig. 48 (p. 70) – Left: Four-spiral (swastika) Boeotian fibula; Right: a Mim-bres bowl with spiral motive. COOMARASWAMY, Ananda K. (1944). The Iconography of Dürer’s ‘Knots’ and Leonardo’s ‘Concatenation’. Pp 109 – 128 in: The Art Quarterly, VALENTINER, W.R. & RICHARSON, E.P. (Ed.). Detroit Institute of Arts, Vol. VII (1944). DOC37/4945/4938.

Fig. 49 (p. 71) – The location of the labyrinth on a map by Sebastian Munster (1575). La Cosmographie Universelle de Tout de Monde. Photocopy: Gemeentebibliotheek Amsterdam.

Fig. 50 (p. 72) – Building complex at Knossos (Crete). The Minoan building complex at Knossos (Crete). CASTLEDEN, Rodney (1990). The Knossos Labyrinth. A new view of the ‘Palace of Minos’ at Knossos. Routledge, London and New York. ISBN 0-415-03315-2  –     Also (slightly different) in: SCULLY, Vincent (1962). The Earth, the Temple and the Gods. Greek sacred Architecture. Yale University Press, New Haven and London.  A reconstruction is given in: WATKIN, David (1986). De westerse architectuur. Een geschiedenis (A History of Western Architecture). SUN, Nijmegen/Calman & King Ltd., London. ISBN 90 616668 409 9. DOC63/7636, 7647; DOC63/7653; DOC92/11264;  DOC35/4763.

Fig. 51 (p. 73) – Labyrinth in a Roman villa in Orbe (Switzerland). DASZEWSKI, Wiktor A. (1977). Nea Paphos II. La mosaique de Thesee. Etudes sur les mosaiques avec representations du labyrinthe, de Thesee et du Minotaure. Centre d’archeologie mediterraneenne de l’academie polo-naise des sciences. PWN, Editions scientifiques de Pologna. Varsovie, 1977.  – DOC53/6644. ‘Two decades of research have uncovered the vestiges of the vast antique estate which was initially known for its mosaics. Some hundred rooms arranged around two peristyles: a monumental palatial building dating back to the 2nd and 3rd century, complete with all its annexes and protected by a surrounding wall measuring 400 metres by 400 metres’. http://www.orbe-tourisme.ch/en/Culture_Patrimoine/Roman_Mosaics/villaromain

Fig. 52 (p. 74) – Labyrinth quaternity.  KERÉNYI, Karl (1950). Labyrinth-Studien. Labyrinthos als Linienreflex einer mythologischen Idee. Albae Vigiliae. Neue Folge, Heft X.  C.G. Jung zum fünfundsiebzigsten Geburtstag 26. Julli 1950 gewidmet. Rhein-Verlag, Zürich. Also in: KERN, Hermann (1982). Labyrinthe: Erscheiningsformen und Deutungen; 5000 Jahre Gegenwart eines Urbilds. Prestel-Verlag, München. ISBN 3-7913-0614-6 and: MATTHEWS, W.H. (1922). Op. cit. This latter reference pointed to the original source as: AME, E. (1859). Les Carrelages Emailles du Moyen Age. DOC13/1809; DOC24/3424.

Fig. 53 (p. 75) – Labyrinth with the four elements. In Guillaume de la Perriere – Le Theatre des bon engins (Paris, 1539). Fig. 399 in: KERN, Hermann (1982). Op. cit. This book is, in my opinion, still the best reference for the subject of the labyrinth. The literature is wide and varied, pointing to a timeless interest all over the world. Its attraction can be explained by the ‘Fourth Quadrant’ nature of the labyrinth. However, a heightened attention to the subject does not necessarily point to a position (of the observed) in the last quadrant of a communication. A dated compilation of ‘Mazes and how to thread them’ can be found in: DUDENEY, Henry E. (1917/1947). Amusements in Mathematics. Thomas Nelson and Sons, London. This same book (p. 119ff ) has an instructive chapter on ‘Magic Square Problems’. DOC24/3431; DOC112/13926.

Fig. 54 (p. 80) – The stone circle of Tregeseal (Cornwall). BURL, Aubrey (1999). Great Stone Circles. Fables. Fiction. Facts. Yale University Press. New Haven/London. ISBN 0-300-07689-4. DOC71/8457.

Fig. 55 (p.81) – Na Carraigean Edintian (Perth 23) stone circle. BURL, Aubrey (1988). Four-Posters. Bronze Age Stone Circles of Western Europe. BAR British Series 195, Oxford, Egland. ISBN 0 86054 580 6. DOC63/7525.

Fig. 56 (p. 82) – The architectural features at Stonehenge, England. BURL, Aubrey (1999). Op. cit. DOC71/8462.

Fig. 57 (p. 84) A hypothetical stone circle. Marten Kuilman. This model emphasizes the relation between Man and  its environment, rather than the influence of cosmic forces.

Fig. 58 (p. 87) – The Egyptian cultural period in a quadralectic setting. KUILMAN, Marten (1999). Egypte in quadralektisch perspectief. Not in print.

Fig. 59 (p. 90) The Enneade of Heliopolis. A quadralectic reconstruction by Marten Kuilman (1999). Op. cit.

Fig. 60 (p. 91) A diagram of the gods of Memphis. Quadralectic interpretation by Marten Kuilman (1999). Op. cit.

Fig. 61 (p. 92) – A developed pyramid complex. MARTIN, Geoffrey T. (1991). The Hidden Tombs of Memphis. New Disco-veries from the Time of Tutankhamun and Ramesses the Great. Thames and Hudson Ltd., London. ISBN 0-500-39026 –6. DOC24/3442.

Fig. 62 (p. 93) – The pyramid complex of Pepi II. FAKHRY, Ahmed (1961). The Pyramids. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago and London. ISBN 0-226-23471-1. DOC74/8817.

Fig. 63 (p. 94) – Map of the necropole of Gizeh. HOGERVORST, Bert & WOLTERMAN, Charles (1995). Confrontatie met de dood in Oud-Egypte. Ex Oriente Lux, Leiden/Peeters, Leuven. ISBN 90-72690-10-9. DOC47/5941; DOC74/8808.

Fig. 64 (p. 95) – Plan of the Mortuary Temple of the Great Pyramid. FAKHRY, Ahmed (1961). The Pyramids. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago and London. ISBN 0-226-23471-1. DOC74/8809.

Fig. 65 (p. 96) – The Valley Temple (left) and Mortuary Temple (right) of the Second Pyramid in Gizeh. FAKHRY, Ahmed (1961). Op. cit. DOC74/8812 – 8813.

Fig. 66 (p. 97) – Plan of the Valley temple of the Third Pyramid at Gizeh. FAKHRY, Ahmed (1961).  Op. cit. DOC74/8814

Fig. 67 (p. 98) – A reconstruction of the temple-pyramid of Nebhepetre-Mentuhotep in Deir el Bahari.  FAKHRY, Ahmed (1961). Op. cit. DOC74/8818. The original reconstruction by Somers Clarke is given as ‘a model of the grave and temple of Mentuhotep III’ (Abb. 62) in: LIGETI, Paul (1931). Der Weg aus dem Chaos: Eine Deutung des Welt-geschehens aus dem Rhythmus der Kunstentwicklung. Verlag Georg D.W. Callwey, München. Somers Clarke (1841 – 1926) was a Brighton-born architect and Egyptologist, who worked at a number of sites throughout Egypt, including Deir el Bahari. Earlier in his career (1887) he was involved in the restoration and enlargement of the Holy Trinity Church in Ardington near Wantage (formerly Berkshire, now Oxfordshire). Key p. 25, fig. 11.

Fig. 68 (p. 99) – The temple of Chon at Thebe (Luxor). TEICHMANN, F. (1978). Der Mensch und sein Tempel. Verlag Urachhaus/ Johannes M. Mayer GmbH & Co., Stuttgart. Also in: BENEVOLO, Leonardo (1980). The History of the City. (tr. Geoffrey Culverwell). Scolar Press, London.

Fig. 69 (p. 100) – Plans of Egyptian temples. Antoine-Chrysostome Quatremère de Quincy, after Pococke, 1803. VIDLER, Anthony (1987). The Writing of the Walls. Architectural Theory in the Late Enlightenment. Princeton Architectural Press, Princeton NJ. ISBN 0-910413-07-X. DOC64/7711.

Fig. 70 (p. 101) – Plan of the temple in Edfu. From: Woordenboek der Oudheid, I, afb. 39. Fig. 28 in:VERGOTE, J. (1987). De godsdienst van het Oude Egypte. Peeters, Leuven. ISBN 90-6831-093-3. DOC44/5711.

Fig. 71 (p. 102) – The temple at Kom Ombo (Upper Egypt). http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Oracle/4168/sites/komombo.htm  An early description of this temple was given by G. PEARSON (1890) in: EDWARDS, Amelia B. (1890). A Thousand Miles up the Nile. George Routledge and Sons, Limited, London. See also the instructrive site: http://timea.rice.edu/index.html TIMEA is supported by the Institute of Museum and Library Services, CITI and Rice University. Int50/6278.

Fig. 72 (p. 103) – The Four Winds as an animal with lion heads. From Dendara. GUTBUG, Adolphe (1977). Die vier Winde im Tempel Kom Ombol (Ober-ägypten). P. 328 in: KEEL, Othmar (1977). Jahwe-Visionen und Siegelkunst. Stuttgarter Bibelstudien 84/85. Verlag Katholisches Bibelwerk, Stuttgart. The theme of the (four) lions heads was reworked in the Biblical books Daniel 7 and Revelation 13 : 1-8. DOC23/3142.

Fig. 73 (p. 104) – The four holy cities in Lower Egypt. Original drawing by Clive Tunnicliffe in: DESROCHES-NOBLECOURT, Christiane (1963). Toetanchamon. Leven en dood van een fararo. George Rainbird Ltd., London/ H.J.W. Becht Uitgevers-maatschappij, Amsterdam. DOC50/6278. Heliopolis (earth) and Sais (fire) are reversed in ‘A Ceremonial Table of Elements (Part 1)(p. 47) in the hermetic book of: CLARK, Rosemary (2000). The sacred tradition in ancient Egypt: the esoteric wisdom revealed. Llewellyn Publications, St. Paul (MN). ISBN 1-56718-129-5.

Fig. 74 (p. 108) – The visibility of the Greek cultural period. The visible visibility area (X) is that part of a communication, which is most prominent to the observer. It is chosen between 900 BC, when the Geometric period started and 150 BC, when Greece was annexed by the Roman Empire (in 146 BC). Interpretation by Marten Kuilman.

Fig.  75 (p. 110) – The Tholos area of Athens. Fig. 62 in: THOMPSON, Homer A. (1940/1975). The Tholos of Athens and its Predecessors. The American Excavations in the Athenian Agora; Hesperia: Supplement IV, 1940; Swets & Zeitlinger B.V., Amsterdam. DOC73/8762.

Fig. 76  (p. 111) – The tholos of Delphi in the sanctuary of Athena Pronaia. Drawing by Marten Kuilman. Int57/7611 – 7613; Int94/12610;  Int97/12983 – 12986.

Fig. 77 (p. 112) – The tholos at Epidaurus (after G. Roux). P. 75, fig 33 in: SEILER, Florian (1986). Die Griechische Tholos. Untersuchungen zur Ent-wicklung, Typologie und Funktion kunstmässiger Rundbauten. Verlag Philipp von Zabern, Mainz am Rhein. ISBN 3-8053-0918-X. DOC76/9112. Also: Internet:  http://users.otenet.gr/~altagr/english/sel1.htm#

Fig. 78 (p. 113) – The tholos at Epidaurus. By Chrysanthos Kanellopoulos (2002). Int57/ 7594; Int94/12620. See for his creative drawings and studies of Petra (Jordan): http://petragarden.homestead.com/kanellopoulos.html  OERTEL, Henning (2000). Die Tholos von Epidauros. http://www.gottwein.de/Hell2000/epid002.php  See also: ALTANI (1996). Heliocentric System and Precession of Equinoxes on the floor of the Tholos at Epidaurus. DAVLOS, No. 176-177 (Aug/Sept 1996); No. 196 (March 1998); No. 199 (July 1998).http://users.otenet.gr/~altagr/english/right.htm

Fig. 79 (p. 114) – The tholos in Olympia. SEILER, Florian (1986). Op. cit. Also in: SCHLEIF, H. (1943). Neue Ausgrabungen in Olympia und ihre bisherigen Ergebnisse für die antike Bauforschung, Europäische Studien-mappen, Berlin. Fig. 4 and p. 129, fig. 96 in: MALLWITZ, A. (1972). Olympia und seine Bauten. Verlag S. Kasas, Athens.  DOC76/9116.

Fig. 80 (p. 115) – The sanctuary of Melikertes-Palaimon at Isthmia. GEBHARD, Elizabeth R. (1993). The Evolution of a Pan-Hellenic Sanctuary: From Archaeology towards History at Isthmia. Pp. 154-177 in: Greek Sancturaries, New Approaches. Int97/12987; Int101/13601 http://humanities.uchicago.edu/orgs/isthmia/publications/evolution/is-evol.html  

Fig. 81 (p. 118) – The Temple of Athena (Temple of Ceres) in Paestum. Int55/7368; Int95/12710ff.http://sights.seindal.dk/sight/87_Temple_of_Athena.html

Fig. 82 (p. 119) – The Acropolis. In a (nineteenth century) reconstruction by Thiersch. Fig. 50 in: BOER, de, M.G. & HETTEMA, H (1913). Platen-Atlas ten gebruike bij het onderwijs in de Algemeene Geschiedenis. A.W. Sijthoff Uitg. Mij., Leiden.

Fig. 83 (p. 120) – The temple of Hephaistos on the Agora in Athens. Int108/14539;  Int108/14541 – 14544. http://www.scott-appplegate.com/album/greece/images/agora%205.jpg Also: http://www.duke.edu/~eec/front.html  Int 55; 7344.

Fig. 84 (p. 120) – Temple of Athena Nike. After a photo by Alison Frantz. Fig. 38 in: WYCHERLEY, R.E. (1978). The Stones of Athens. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey. DOC101/12510; Int106/14218; Int106/14253. http://www.colorado.edu/FRIT/cravenp/Ital3030/temple_of_nike.htm http://www.ne.jp/asahi/daikannw/network/webacropol/nikh_temple_reconstruction.jpg  And:http://www.indiana.edu/~kglowack/athens/images/07.001.JPG

Fig. 85 (p. 121) – Thales of Miletes. Int107/14430 -14433;  14436 -14450;  Thales portraits: 14451 – 14452.http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/history/PictDisplay/Thales.html

Fig. 86 (p. 123) – Temples of the Prostylos-type in Pergamon. From left to right: 1. Dionysos temple with Ionic order, second century BC; 2. Temple of the Upper Agora, Doric with Ionic elements, second half second cent. BC; 3. Temple of Hera Basileia, Doric order; 4. Temple of Asklepios, second half second century BC. 5. Temple of the Middle Gymnasium, dedicated to Hermes and Hercules. Corinthian order, second half of the second century BC. AKURGAL, Ekrem (1987). Griechische und Römische Kunst in der Türkei. Hirmer Verlag, München. ISBN 3-774-4280-1. DOC19/2772.

Fig. 87 (p. 124) – The altar of Zeus at Pergamon. Pergamon Museum, Berlin. Fig. 17.7 in: GATES, Charles (2003). The archaeology of urban life in the Ancient Near East and Egypt, Greece, and Rome. Routledge, London.  ISBN 0-415-01895-1. DOC76/9189; Int108/14503;  Int108/14530 – 14538.  See also fig. 8.9 in: WELTER, Volker M. (2002). Biopolis. Patrick Geddes and the City of Life. The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts. ISBN 0-262-23211-1. For a reconstruction of the temple of Zeus in Berlin, see: http://wwww.kzu.ch/fach/as/gallerie/rare/ka/ka_pages/pergamon/perg_02.htm or fig. 203/204 in: JANSON, H.W. (1962/1986). History of Art. Harry N. Abrams, Inc., New York. ISBN 0-8109-1094-2.

Fig. 88 (p. 126) – An interpretation of the historic position of the Roman cultural period in quadralectic perspective by Marten Kuilman. The visibility period X is chosen between 750 BC and 500 AD.

Fig. 89 (p. 127) – The Temple of the Vestal Virgins in Rome. http://www.planetware.ca/photos/I/IR009.HTM  See also: LEFKOWITZ, Mary & FANT, Maureen (1982) Women’s Life in Greece and Rome. The Johns Hopkins University Press; 3rd edition (August 23, 2005). ISBN 0801883105. Int106/14301;  Int109/14641 – 14647.

Fig. 90 (p. 128) – The Temple of Vesta on the Forum Boarium in Rome. A drawing by Marten Kuilman after Plate II in: LETHABY, W.R. (1956). Architecture, Nature & Magic. Gerald Duckworth & Co., Ltd. London. See also fig. 31 in:SUMMERSON, John (1983). Die klassische Sprache der Architektur. Vieweg, Braunschweig, Wiesbaden (The Classical Language of Architecture, Thames & Hudson, London, 1980). ISBN 3-528-08763-3. Int60/8067.

Fig. 91 (p. 129) – The Temple of Vesta in Tivoli. PALLADIO, Andrea (1570/1983). Die Vier Bücher zur Architektur (I Quattro Livri dell’Architettura; transl. Andreas Beyer & Ulrich Schütte). Verlag für Architektur Artemis. Zürich und München. ISBN 3 7608 81165. DOC67/8008;  Int59/7860;  Int106/14276 – 14277. For a plan see: http://rubens.anu.edu.au/htdocs/laserdisk/0196/19654.JPG

Fig. 92 (p. 131) – The Pantheon in Rome in a sketch by Fernando Partini. ROSSI, Ferdinando (1968). Mosaics. A Survey of their History and Techniques. Pall Mall Press, London. SBN 269 02565 0. DOC22/3049.

Fig. 93 (p. 132) – A plan of the Pantheon.  MATT, von, L. & BARELLI, F. (1977). Rome. Tijdperken van kunst en kultuur. Cantecleer, de Bilt. A copy of (part of) a plan is found in: DESGODETZ, Antoine (1682). Les edifices antiques de Rome. Given in:  TZONIS, Alexander; LEFAIRE, Liane & BILODEAU, Denis (1983). De taal van de klassicistische architektuur. Het gebod tot orde. SUN, Socialistische Uitgeverij, Nijmegen. They also give the plan originally printed by: SERLIO (1619) – Tutte l’opere. See also: LEFAIVRE, Liane & TZONIS, Alexander (2004). The Emergence of Modern Architecture. A documentary history from 1000 to 1810. Routledge, New York. ISBN 0-415-26025-6. An earlier plan is given (as fig. 168) in: PALLADIO, Andrea (1570/1983). Op. cit. Richly illustrated, with plan, section through the portico and rotunda and details of capitals in: FLETCHER, Banister (1975). A History of Architecture (revised by J.G. Palmer). The Athlone Press, University of London. ISBN 0 485 55001 6. A detailed description and plan is given by: GERKAN, von, Armin (1959). Von Antiker Architektur und Topographie. In: BOEHRINGER, Erich (Ed.). Gesammelte Aufsätze von Armin von Gerkan. W. Kohlhammer GmbH, Stuttgart. And Abb. 221 in: LIGETI, Paul (1931). Der Weg aus dem Chaos. Eine Deutung des Weltgeschehens aus dem Rhythmus der Kunstentwicklung. Verlag Georg D.W. Callwey, München. He noted that: ‘Der Säulenvorbau ist eigentlich ein dreischiffiger Innenraum, dessen mittleres Schiff in den Kuppelraum führt.’ DOC3/242-243;  DOC9/1082, 1085;   DOC67/8003;  DOC100/12334. Gert SPERLING (1998, In: NEXUS II. Relationships Between Architecture and Mathematics; Mantua, Italy) pointed to the ‘resemblance based on mathematical knowledge, a summary of the ancient quadrivium’. Int58/7833. JOHN, R. (2002). Lecture 11: Hadrianic Architecture: The Pantheon, etc. Int96/12872 http://intranet.arc.miami.edu/rjohn/ARC%20267/Hadrianic_2002.htm Int178/24143 http://www.romeguide.it/MONUM/ARCHEOL/pantheon/the_pantheon.htm  – http://ca.geocities.com/pfsearle@rogers.com/pantheondata2.html

Fig. 94 (p. 133) – Vue on the Pantheon with galleries. RODDAZ, Jean-Michel (2002). Le Pantheon. Pp. 70 – 75 in: Hadrien. Dossiers d’Archeologie. No. 274. Juin 2002. DOC68/8169.

Fig. 95 (p. 134) – The Temple of Minerva Medica and Michelozzo’s rotunda at the east of the SS. Annunziata, Florence. PEVSNER, Nikolaus (1943/1961). An Outline of European Architecture. Penguin Books Ltd.,/Pelican Books, Harmondsworth, Middlesex.

Fig. 96 (p. 135) – The temple complex at Baalbek (Libanon). Drawing by Marten Kuilman after a local postcard. A view and plan of the Temple of Venus in Baalbek is given as fig. 250/251: JANSON, H.W. (1962/1986). History of Art. N. Abrams, Inc., New York. ISBN 0-8109-1094-2 – DOC84/10217.

Fig. 97 (p. 136) – The Stone of the Pregnant Woman. Drawing by Marten Kuilman after a photo.

Fig. 98 (p. 137) – The Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus. Plan and reconstruction by Dr. Scott Bucking, History Department, DePaul University, Chicago, Illinois 60614. See: http://condor.depaul.edu/~sbucking/extra/cap_jupiter5.jpg  A reconstruction of the Temple is given as fig. 93 in: NORBERG-SCHULZ, Christian(1974). Meaning in Western Architecture. Studio Vista/Electa Editrice, Milano/Praeger Publications, Inc.ISBN 0 289 705699 X. Int108/14587;  DOC104/12948.

Fig. 99 (p. 138) – The Temple of Portunus in the Forum Boarium. The Temple was commonly known as the Temple of Fortuna Virilis, but is believed (by Platner & Ashby, 1929) to be that of the Mater Matuta. A drawing by Marten Kuilman after a photo by Leo C. Curran, 1978 (Copyright ©1997/#ac 780324). Int111/14852;  Int110/14849;  Int200/27048.

Fig. 100 (p. 139) – A tetradic decoration in Nimes. PALLADIO, Andrea (1570/1983). Die Vier Bücher zur Architektur (I Quattro Libri dell’Architettura; transl. Andreas beyer & Ulrich Schütte). Verlag für Architektur Artemis, Zürich und München. ISBN 3 7608 81165. The actual ‘La Maison Carrée’ does not have tetradic characteristics, except its squareness. The hexastyle front points to higher numbers. DOC67/8020 (La Maison Carrée): Int108/14499; Int111/14883; Int112/15028.

Fig. 101 (p. 140) – The distribution of Roman-Gallo ‘Umgangstempel’.  According to WILSON, 1980, p. 61, fig. 3.5. DOC75/8978.  WIELAND, Günther (1999). Keltische Viereckschanzen. Einem Rätsel auf der Spur. Theiss, Stuttgart. ISBN 3-8062-1387-9. See for further literature on this subject: FAUDUET, Isabelle (1993). Les temples de tradition celtique en Gaule romaine (Collection Hesperides). Editions Errance. ISBN 13 9782877720748. ARGOUD, Gilbert (2000). Mémoires XXII. Archéologie des sanctuaires en Gaule Romaine, textes réunis et présentés par William VAN ANDRINGA, Publications de l’Université de Saint-Etienne. And: LOBÜSCHER, Thomas (2002). Tempel- und Theaterbau in den Tres Galliae und den germanischen Provinzen. Ausgewählte Aspekte. Band 6 in: FISCHER, Thomas (Ed). Kölner Studien zur Archäologie der Römischen Provinzen (KASARO). Marie Leidorp Verlag (VML). Rahden/Westfalen. ISBN 3-89646-134-6.

Fig. 102 (p. 132) – The temple of Janus in Autun (France). Drawing by Marten Kuilman after: Edme Thomas (1856). La cité antique d’Autun’http://www.cgagne.org/amisdebar/amibar6.pdf A map of Autun in Roman times (after H. de Fontenau, 1889) can be found as fig. 29  in: HAVERFIELD, F. (1913). Ancient Town-Planning. At the Clarendon Press, Oxford. Int105/14195;  DOC100/12408; Int176/23782.

Fig. 103 (p. 141) – A reconstruction of the Janus Temple in Autun (France). By J.J. Rach. WIELAND, Günther (1999). Keltische Viereckschanzen. Einem Rätsel auf der Spur. Theiss, Stuttgart. ISBN 3-8062-1387-9. DOC75/8980.

Fig. 104 (p. 142) – A Palmyra door. National Museum of Damascus, Syria. Drawing by Marten Kuilman after a photo by the writer (1999).

Fig. 105 (p. 144) – The Olmec site of la Venta (Mexico). STIERLIN, Henri (1981). The Art of Maya. Evergreen/Benedikt Taschen Verlag GmbH, Köln. ISBN 3-8228-9033-2. DOC74/8823.

Fig. 106 (p. 145) – A overview of the Mayan Civilisation, based on: HARDOY, Jorge (1968). Urban Planning in Pre-Columbian America. George Braziller, New York. LCCCN 68-24700  And: WILLEY, Gordon R.  (1982). Maya Archaeology. Pp. 260 – 267 in: Science 215 (4530).  And: COE, Michael D. (1966/1993). The Maya. Thames and Hudson, New York. ISBN 0-500-27716-8. DOC75/8951; DOC75/9047.

Fig. 107 (p. 147) – A proposal for the communication graph (CF-graph) of the Meso-American cultures by Marten Kuilman. The (visible) visibility area (X) starts at the year 200 BC and the end of the historical visibility period is in 1500.

Fig. 108 (p. 149) – A map op the central zone of the city of Teotiuacan. HARDOY, Jorge (1968). Urban Planning in Pre-Columbian America. George Braziller, New York. LCCCN 68-24700. DOC75/8952.

Fig. 109 (p. 150) – The ‘Courtyard of Altars’ at the Great Pyramid of Cholula near Puebla (Mexico). Photo Copyright 1997 – 2001 David R. Hixson. Int113/15178; Int117/15693 http://studentweb.tulane.edu/~dhixson/cholula/monuments2.html

Fig. 110 (p. 151) – A plan of Chichen Itza (Mexico). STIERLIN, Henri (1981). The Art of Maya. Evergreen/Benedikt Taschen Verlag GmbH, Köln. ISBN 3-8228-9033-2. DOC74/8836. An excellent, early contribution – with maps – is given by: RUPPERT, Karl (1953). Chichen Itza: Architectural Notes and Plans. Carnegie Institution of Washington, 595. Washington, D.C. See also: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1525/aa.1954.56.5.02a00450/pdf

Fig. 111 (p. 152) – A plan of El Castillo or the Pyramid of Kukulcan at Chichen Itza (Mexico). STIERLIN, Henri (1981).  Op. cit. DOC74/8838.

Fig. 112 (p. 153) – El Caracol or the Observatory at Chichen Itza, Mexico. STIERLIN, Henri (1981). Op. cit. DOC74/8837.

Fig. 113 (p. 154) – The House of the Seven Dolls at Dzibilchaltun (Mexico). STIERLIN, Henri (1981). Op. cit. DOC74/8833.

Fig. 114 (p. 155) – The stela at Dzibilchaltun, north of Merida (Mexico).  A drawing by Marten Kuilman after a photo by Edward Dawson. http://www.dallas.net/~lalo/chichen.html   See for a plan and eleveation p. 124 in: STIERLIN, Henri (1981). Op. cit. DOC74/8833.

Fig. 115 (p. 156) – The Nunnary Quadrangle at Uxmal (Yucatan). ©Copyright 1987 – 2004 Martin Gray. Int113/15190. http://www.sacredsites.com/americas/mexico/uxmal.html

Fig. 116 (p. 157) – The ceremonial centre at Palenque. STIERLIN, Henri (1981).  Op. cit. DOC74/8830.

Fig. 117 (p. 158) – The plan of the central part of Tikal. COE, Michael D. (1966/1993). The Maya. Thames and Hudson, New York. ISBN 0-500-27716-8. DOC75/9050.

Fig. 118 (p. 159) – The talud-tablero. Int 115/15455. http://www.stuftdzine.com/mexico/origpages/tyt.html

Fig. 119 (p. 160) – The Temple of the Great Jaguar at Tikal (Guatemala). A drawing by Marten Kuilman after a photo by the author(1988). Int113/15205-15226

Fig. 120 (p. 161) – The Mundo Perdido Complex as it appeared during the Imix phase (A.D. 700 – 800). DOC79/9546  Fig. 7.1 in: LAPORTE, Juan P. (2003). Architectural Aspects of Interaction between Tikal and Teotihuacan during the Early Classic Period. Pp. 199 – 216  in: BRASWELL, Geoffrey E. (2003). The Maya and Teotihuacan. Reinterpreting Early Clasic Interaction. University of Texas Press, Austin. ISBN 0-292-70914-5

Fig. 121 (p. 162) – The Great Pyramid of the Mundo Perdido Complex in Tikal (Guatemala). Int115/15444. http://www.indianer-wel.de/meso/maya/tikal-mundo.htm Four older pyramids are beneath the surface of the Great Pyramid.

Fig. 122 (p. 164) – Construction sequence of Mount A, Kaminaljuyu. BRASWELL, Geoffrey E. (2003). Dating Early Classic Interaction between Kaminaljuyu and Central Mexico. Ch. 3, fig. 3.2.; pp. 81 – 104 in: BRASWELL, Geoffrey E. (2003). The Maya and Teotihuacan. Reinter-preting Early Classic Interaction. University of Texas Press, Austin. ISBN 0-292-70914-5. DOC79/9544 9 (= structure B-4)

Fig. 123 (p. 167) – The Tonalpohualli calendar and the five parts of the world. ENDRES, Franz C. & SCHIMMEL, Annemarie (1984). Das Mysterium der Zahl. Zahlensymbolik im Kulturvergleich. Eugen Diederichs Verlag, Köln. ISBN 3-424-00829-X. ‘The system of the tonalpohualli can be best understood by imagining two wheels that are connected to each other. One wheel has the numbers “one” to “thirteen” written on it. The second wheel has twenty symbols on it. In the initial situation, number “one” combines with the first symbol. This is the first day of the tonalpohualli. Now the wheels start moving and number “two” combines with the second glyph. This is the second day. After fourteen days, an Aztec week (trecena in Spanish) of thirteen days has passed. The wheel with the numbers shows number “one” again. The other wheel now shows the fourteenth symbol. After 260 days, the two wheels have returned to their initial position. The tonalpohualli starts all over again’. René Voorburg in: http://www.azteccalendar.com/azteccalendar.html See also for the calendar system (in Dutch): ZANTWIJK, Rudolf A.M. van (1977). Handel en wandel van de Azteken. De sociale geschiedenis van voor-Spaans Mexico. Van Gorcum, Assen. ISBN-10: 9023215095. DOC16/2228-2229

Fig. 124 (p. 168) – Plan of the Templo Mayor of Tenochtitlan (Mexico City). HARDOY, Jorge E. (1964/1973). Pre-Columbian Cities. George Allen & Unwin Ltd., London. ISBN 0-04-722001-5 And: HARDOY, Jorge (1968). Urban Planning in Pre-Columbian America. George Braziller, New York. LCCCN 68-24700. DOC28/3968; DOC75/8961.

Fig. 125 (p. 170) – The sundial stone at Machu Picchu (Peru). A drawing after by Marten Kuilman after a photo of the author (1996).

Fig. 126 (p. 171) – A wall in Cuzco. HAGEN, von, Victor W. (1962/1973). The Ancient Sun Kingdoms of the Americas. Thames & Hudson Ltd./Granada Publishing Limited/Paladin St Alans, Herts. ISBN 0 586 08151 8. DOC28/3961.

Fig. 127 (p. 174) – A quaternary scheme of the world (jambudvipa). ALEXANDRESCU, Sorin; PARRET, Herman & QUIK, Ton (Ed.) (1991). Hemel & Aarde. Werelden van Verbeelding. Uitgeverij John Benjamins, Amsterdam. ISBN 90-272-2089-1. DOC14/1962;  DOC37/5013; DOC41/5440.

Fig. 128 (p. 175) – The cosmic man (mahapurusha) and the Paramasayika pattern. ROOB, Alexander (1997). Alchemie & Mystiek. Het Hermetisch Museum. Benedikt Taschen Verlag GmbH., Keulen/Librero Nederland, Hedel. ISBN 3-8228-9199-1  Also in: MICHEL, George (1977). The Hindu Temple. An Introduction to its Meaning and Forms. Paul Elek, London. ISBN 0 236 40088 6. DOC43/5636; after DOC14/1961.

Fig. 129 (p. 176) – Rajivalocana temple in Rajim (Chhattisgarth, India). Frontipiece in: MEISTER, Michael W.; DHAKY, M.A. & DENA, Khrisna (1988/1991). Encyclopaedia of Indian Temple Architecture North India. Vol. II, Part 1. American Institute of Indian Studies. Princeton University Press. DOC81/9804.

Fig. 130A/130B (p. 177/178) – The groundplan of various temples in India. MEISTER, Michael W.; DHAKY, M.A. & DENA, Khrisna (1988/1991). Op. cit. DOC81/9804…

Fig. 131 (p. 179) – A plan of the temple at Dhobini, India. MEISTER, Michael W.; DHAKY, M.A. & DENA, Khrisna (1988/1991). Op. cit. DOC81/9809.

Fig. 132 (p. 182) – The Vishva-Vajra. p. 239 in: CAPRA, Fritjof (1975/1982). De Tao van Fysica. Een onderzoek naar de parallellen tussen de moderne fysica en oosterse mystiek. (vert. Willem Daub). Uitgeverij Contact, Amsterdam. ISBN 90 254 6548 X. DOC37/4951

Fig. 133 (p. 183) – Kalachakra mandala from Tibet, 18th century. ROOB, Alexander (1997). Op. cit. DOC43/5609.

Fig. 134 (p. 184) – The Tibetan sanctuary of Samye Gompa (Tibet). http://www.thenewage.com/community/tibet/picture.asp?picture=images/83.jpg Int120/16105-16106. http://perso.wannadoo.fr/tibetmap/Go30.html –

Fig. 135 (p. 185) – Stupa of Rawak near Khotan (Chinese Turkestan). Photo Rawak by Richard Bernstein: http://www.randomhouse.com/knopf/authors/bernstein/khotan.html KLIMKEIT, Hans-Joachin (1988). Die Seidenstrasse: Handelsweg und Kulturbrücke zwischen Morgen- und Abendland. DuMont Buchverlag, Köln. ISBN 3-7701-1790-5. DOC25A/3461.

Fig. 136 (p. 186) – Map of Chotan by Sven Hedin. HEDIN, Sven (1919). Durch Asiens Wüsten. Drei Jahre auf neuen Wegen in Pamir, Lop-nor, Tibet und China (Band I – II). F.A. Brockhaus, Leipzig. DOC81/9803.

Fig. 137 (p. 187) – The house with the painted walls in Rawak. HEDIN, Sven (1919). Op. cit. DOC81/9792.

Fig. 138 (p. 188) – Part of a map of the Khotan Oasis by Aurel Stein. STEIN, M. Aurel (1903). Sand-buried Ruins of Khotan. Personal Narrative of a Journey of Archaeological & Geographical Exploration in Chinese Turkestan. T. Fisher Unwin, London. Modern research in the area is carried out by the French archaeologue Corinne Debaine-Francfort. She discovered with her team a whole new city (Djumbulak Kum) in the prehistoric delta of the Kerya River, some forty kilometers north-northwest of Dayehan (Xinjiang Province, China). See:DEBAINE-FRANCFORT, Corinne (1998). The Search for Ancient China. Discoveries. Harry W. Abrams, Inc. New York. DOC82/9930.

Fig. 139 (p. 190) – The ground plan of the great stupa of Sanchi (India). GLAUCHE, Johannes W. (1995). Der Stupa. Kultbau des Buddhismus. DuMont, Köln. ISBN 3-7701-3018-9. A picture of the Great Stupa, from E. (late 1st cent. B.C.) in: FLETCHER, Banister (1975). A History of Architecture (revised by J.C. Palmer). The Athlone Press, University of London. London. SBN 0 485 55001 6. Int122/16397ff;  DOC95/11714.

Fig. 140 (p. 191) – Symbols of the five elements as reflected in the architectural parts of the stupa. After: GLAUCHE, Johannes W. (1995).  Op. cit.

Fig. 141 (p. 192) – Four-fold scheme with the hand positions of Buddha at the Borobudur temple in Mid-Java (Indonesia). SPLUNTER, van, Job (1994). Esoterie & Architectuur. Speurtocht naar het ontstaan van vormen. Elmar BV, Rijswijk. ISBN 90 389 02018. DOC79/9629.

Fig. 142 (p. 193) – Borobudur. Drawing after a photo by Marten Kuilman (November 1992).

Fig. 143 (p. 194) – A map of the Prambanan temple complex (Lara Djong-grang Group). Pl. 31 in: KROM, N.J. (1920). Inleiding tot de Hindoe-Javaanse kunst. Martinus Nijhoff, ‘s-Gravenhage. DOC18/2543.

Fig. 144 (p. 195) – A map of the Candi Sewu (Tjandi Sewoe) group, near Prambanan. Pl. 12 in:KROM, N.J. (1920). Op. cit. DOC18/2541.

Fig. 145 (p. 196) – Plan of the main temple at Tjandi Sewoe (Prambanan). Pl. 15 in: KROM, N.J. (1920). Op. cit.  Also as Plate 129 in: BERNET KEMPERS, A.J. (1959). Ancient Indonesian Art. C.P.J. van der Peet, Amsterdam. (Krom’s groundplan is turned over ninety degrees clockwise in Bernet Kempers’ plate 129, bringing the entrance towards the south. However, an arrow (the north?) in the central part of the temple points to the right, meaning that the understanding was correct). DOC18/2544; DOC12/1563.

Fig. 146 (p. 197) – No. 1 Shwe-Zigon in Bagan (Myanmar/Burma). The most national of all Burma’s pagodas. Elevation and groundplan. No. 49; fig. 6 and 7 in: STRACHAN, Paul (1989). Imperial Pagan. Art and Architecture of Burma. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu. ISBN 0-8248-1325-1. DOC78/9472.

Fig. 147 (p. 198) – No. 2171 Ananda Temple. STRACHAN, Paul (1989). Op. cit. DOC78/9474; DOC78/9475.

Fig. 148A – Some pagadas in Myanmar (Burma). 1. Myin-pya-gu plan forming a lei-myet-hna; 2. Groundplan No.1600 Nat-Hlaug-Kyaung. Shrine confining the Devas. Warly Period, c. 850 – 1120; 3. No. 1239 Nan-hpaya ground plan. Perfect gu temple. Reign of Anawrahta, first free-standing Buddhist ‘cave’ at Pagan. The sikhara is carried by four freestanding piers; 4. No. 1192 Naga-Yon groundplan; 5. Ground plan of No. 771 Dhamma-Yan-Gyi. Grondplan based on the Ananda’s Greek cross type of plan; 6.  No. 758 Sula-mani ground plan. The Later Period 1170 – 1300. Inner Circle Monuments. Sithu II (1174 – 1211) was a tireless temple builder. STRACHAN, Paul (1989). Op. cit.  DOC78/9469 – 9471; 9473; 9480; 9482.

Fig. 148B – Some pagadas in Myanmar (Burma); 7. Plan of Sein-nyet Ama. No. 1085-6.  Sein-Nyet Ama (elder sister); 8. Ground plan of No. 1391. Myinkaba Kubyauk-Nge. Late Period; 9. No. 995 Bogyoke-mi groundplan. 10. No. 482 Thambula ground plan. Late Period. STRACHAN, Paul (1989). Op. cit. DOC78/9481; 9484; 9486 ; 9490.

Fig. 149 (p. 201) – The concentric plan of Pre Rup (Cambodia). ROVEDA, Vittorio (1997). Khmer Mythology. Secrets of Angkor. Weatherhill, Inc., Trumbull, CT. ISBN 0 8348 0424 7. DOC80/9763.

Fig. 150 (p. 202) – A plan of Bapuon (Angkor Thom). ROVEDA, Vittorio (1997). Op. cit.
DOC80/9768.

Fig. 151 (p. 203) – Plan of Angkor Vat, Cambodia. MICHEL, George (1977). The Hindu Temple. An Introduction to its Meaning and Forms. Paul Elek, London. ISBN 0 236 40088 6. DOC14/1964.

Fig. 152 (p. 204) – The Great Altar of Heaven in Beijing (China). LETHABY, W.R. (1956). Architecture, Nature & Magic. Gerald Duckworth & Cp., London, London. DOC76/9222.

Fig. 153 (p. 205) – Engraving of the Tabernacle by Jacob Judah Aryah Leon Templo – Retrato del Tabernaculo de Moseh, Amsterdam, 1654. ROSENAU, Helen (1974). The Ideal City. Its Architectural Evolution. Routledge and Kegan Paul, London (1959)/Studio Vista, London. ISBN 0 289 70201 1. DOC75/9042.

Fig. 154 (p. 206) – The oldest schematic representation of the temple in Jerusalem.  Rijkspenningenkabinet in Leiden. BIJLSMA, Tjibbe et al. (1990). De Tempel van Jeruzalem: beeldvorming door de eeuwen heen. Nederlands Bijbelgenootschap, Haarlem. ISBN 90-6126-907-5. Also, although not the same coin: WALSH, Michael (1986/1987). De wortels van het Christendom (Roots of Christianity). Roxby Reference Books Limited/ Zomer & Keunig Boeken BV., Ede/Antwerpen. ISBN 90 210 5121 4. A shekel minted during the revolt of Bar Kochba. The commentary points to the arc, between two pilars of the temple. Since the Temple was destroyed,  this shekel  symbolises an expected return of Judea. DOC25A/3510; DOC40/5346.

Fig. 155 (p. 208) – Blueprint of the new Temple. QUISPEL, Gilles (1979). Het geheime boek der Openbaring. Het laatste boek van de Bijbel (The Secret Book of Revelation). McGraw-Hill Book Company, Maidenhead, England/Uitgeverij W. Gaade, b.v., Amerongen. DOC51/6396.

Fig. 156 (p.209) – Fresco in the San Pietro al Monte in Civate (Italy). CHAMPEAUX, Gerard & STERCKX, Dom Sebastien (1966). Introduction au Monde des Symboles. Zodiaque. DOC14/1950.

Fig. 157 (p. 210) – The New Jerusalem. Trinity College, Cambridge. QUISPEL, Gilles (1979). Op. cit. DOC51/6409.

Fig. 158 (p. 211) – The City of Jerusalem. PILTZ, Anders (1981). The World of Medieval Learning. Basil Blackwell, Oxford. ISBN 0-631-12712-7.

Fig. 159 (p. 212) – The Temple in Jerusalem by Hartmann Schedel, 1493. Weltchronik, Blatt 67a, 1493. Abb. 84 in: JETTER, Dieter (1987). Santiago, Toledo, Granada. Drei Spanische Kreuz-hallenspitäler und ihr Nachhall in aller Welt. Geschichte des Hospitals. Band 6. Franz Steiner Verlag, Wiesbaden GmbH, Stuttgart. ISBN 3-515-04323. In Schedel’s book is also a view of Jerusalem (fol. XVII). Fig. 40 in: KRUFT, Hanno-Walter (1989). Städte in Utopia – Die Idealstadt vom 15. bis zum 18. Jahrhundert zwischen Staatsutopie und Wirklichkeit. Verlag C.H. Beck, München. ISBN 3 406 33909 3. DOC79/9562; DOC73/8784.

Fig. 160 (p. 213) – The Temple of Salomon by J.B. Villalpando, Rome; Biblia Polyglotta, 1657. JETTER, Dieter (1987). Op. cit.  Also as fig. 133 in: KRUFT, Hanno-Walter (1985/1994). A History of Architectural Theory from Vitruvius to the Present. Zwemmer/Princeton Architectural Press, New York. ISBN 0 0302 00603 6. DOC79/9563;  DOC30/4179.

Fig. 161 (p. 214) – The Temple of Jerusalem by Nicolaus Goldmann, 1696. Abb. 86 in: JETTER, Dieter (1987). Op. cit. Also as fig. 2 in: KUNOTH, George (1956). Die Historische Architektur Fischers von Erlach. Verlag L. Schwann, Düsseldorf. Source: Nicolai Goldmann (1699). ‘Vollständigen Anweisung zu der Civil-Baukunst’. DOC79/9564; DOC86/10558.

Fig. 162 (p.215) – Achaemenian fire altar at Naqsh-i-Rustem. P. 290 in: WRIGHT, Esmond (Ed.) (1969/1986). History of the World. Prehistory to the Renaissance. W.H. Smith/Newnes Books – The Hamlyn Publishing Group, London. ISBN 0 600 35881 X. DOC82/9979.

Fig. 163 (p. 216) – A map of the fire temple in the city of Ani. Int116/15642. http://virtualani.freeserve.co.uk/firetemple/index.htm

Fig. 164 (p. 217) – The ‘Temple of the Earth’ by Fidus. ROOB, Alexander (1997). Alchemie & Mystiek. Het Hermetisch Museum. Benedikt Taschen Verlag GmbH., Keulen/Librero Nederland, Hedel. ISBN 3-8228-9199-1  P. 335, Abb. 169 in: JELLINEK, Karl (1921). Das Weltengeheimnis. Vorlesungen zur harmonischen Verenigung von Natur- und Geisteswissenschaft, Philosophie, Kunst und Religion. Verlag von Ferdinand Enke, Stuttgart. DOC43/5616; DOC83/10080.

Fig. 165 (p. 218) – A plan of the ‘Temple of the Earth’, 1895. JELLINEK, Karl (1921). Das Weltengeheimnis.  Op. cit. (Abb. 170, p. 336). DOC43/5617; DOC83/10081.

Fig. 166 (p. 219) – The Temple of Life by Fritz Schumacher (1898 – 1900). WELTER, Volker M. (2002). Biopolis.ick Geddes and the City of Life. The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts. ISBN 0-262-23211-1. Another impressive architectural phantasy, along the same lines, was given by Alois Bastl (1872 – 1947) and his ‘Palace for Scientific Occult Sciences’ (Wagnerschule, 1902). See Pl. I, 4 in: BOYD WHYTE, Iain (2003). Modernism and the Spirit of the City. Routledge, London. ISBN 0-415-25840-5. DOC76/9177.

Fig. 167 (p. 220) – The ‘Temple of Arts and Craft’ by C.R. Ashbee (1917). WELTER, Volker M (2002). Op. cit. The central figure in the Arts and Crafts Movement was William Morris (1834 – 1896). Morris founded in 1861 a company to design decorative objects like wallpaper, textiles, furniture and stained glass. The American Craftsman Movement in architecture included the Prairie School of Frank Lloyd Wright and George Washington Maher. DOC76/9179.

Fig. 168 (p. 223) – Three examples of the Gallo-Roman Umgangstempel. 1. Chill (Dép. Somme); 2. Crozon (Dép. Finistère); and 3. Plaudren (Dép. Morbihan). Nach Fauduet, 1993a. WIELAND, Günther (1999). Keltische Viereckschanzen. Einem Rätsel auf der Spur. Theiss, Stuttgart. ISBN 3-8062-1387-9. Similar plans of Gallo-Roman temples are given on p. 28 in: STENCHLAK, Marian (1983). Architectuurgids van Nederland. Een overzicht van de meest markante bouwwerken, hun ontstaansgeschiedenis, bouwperiode en –stijlen. Uitgeverij Elmar b.v, Rijswijk. ISBN 906120 3414. DOC75/8979; DOC107/13340.

Fig. 169 (p. 225) – Sketch of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. Adamnan – De Locis Sancis, Vienna Cod. 458, f4v. MEEHAN, Denis (1958). Adamnan’s De Locis Sanctis. Scriptores Latini Hiberniae. Volume III. The Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, Dublin. Also in: RICHARDSON, Hilary & SCARRY, John (1990). An Introduction to Irish High Crosses. The Mercier Press, Cork/Dublin. ISBN 0 85342 941 3. DOC43/5577; DOC14/after 1879.

Fig. 170 (p. 226) – The Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem. Drawing by L.H. Vincent O.P. VINCENT, L.H. & ABEL, F.M (1914-1926). Jérusalem Recherches de topo-graphie d’archéologie, et d’Histoire. Gabalda, Paris. And: HAUTECOEUR, Louis (1954). Mystique et Architecture. Symbolisme du cercle et de la coupole. Editions A. et J. Picard et Cie., Paris. Also in : SCHWERING-ILLERT, Gisela (1963). Die ehemalige französiche Abtei-kirche Saint-Sauveur in Charroux (Vienne) im 11. und 12. Jh. Inaugural-Dissertation der Rheinischen Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität zu Bonn. Zentral-Verlag für Dissertationen Triltsch, Düsseldorf. DOC65/7763; DOC93/11488.

Fig. 171 (p. 227) – The Church of Veracruz near Segovia (Spain). P. 221; Fig. 145/146 in: GÖTZ, Wolfgang (1968). Zeltralbau und Zentralbautendenz in der Gotischen Architektur. Gebr. Mann Verlag GmbH., Berlin. DOC75/9018.

Fig. 172 (p. 228) Santo Stefano Rotundo in Rome. Drawing from the 19th century. Provided by Kalervo Koskimies. Int70/9477. http://www2.siba.fi/~kkoskim/rooma/pages/ZEPP068B.HTM

Fig. 173 (p. 230) – The Cathredral at Zwarthnotz (Armenia). GOMBOS, Karoly (1974). Armenia. Landscape and Architecture. Photos: Karoly Gink. University Printing House, Budapest. ISBN 963 13 4605 6. DOC15/2046.

Fig. 174 (p. 232) – The Church of the Shepherd at Ani. Int116/15637. Drawing by Marten Kuilman after:http://www.virualani.freeserve.co.uk/shepherd/index.htm

Fig. 175 (p  233) – The S. George Church, Thessalonica (Greece). LOWRIE, Walter (1906). Monuments of the Early Church. The MacMillan Company & Co. Ltd., New York/London. Annabel WHARTON (1988) gives a plan of the St. Sophia in Thessaloniki, which has a complex, centralized form. Similarities with the Church of the Koimesis in Nicaea, the cathedral at Vize, and the Church of St. Nicholas in Myra are noted. Fig. 4.1 in: WHARTON, Annabel J. (1988). Art of Empire. Painting and Architecture of the Byzantine Periphery. A Comparative Study of Four Provinces. Pennsylvania State University Press. ISBN 0271004959. DOC81/9856; DOC112/13880.

Fig. 176 (p. 234) – Baptistery of the Santa Maria Maggiore Church at Nocera (Italy). Int125/16855/16858. Drawing by Marten Kuilman after: http://www.logis.org/en_monocsupl.htm

Fig. 177 (p. 235) – The rotunda of the San Lorenzo in Mantua (Mantova), 1083. Int127/17154. Barker’s European Tours (BET). Little Italy. http://www.barkertours.com/LitIt.html © Photo: Laurence Barker (2002-2003). Drawing by Marten Kuilman after: http://image16.webshots.com/17/5/84/48/182858448vhDVK1_fs.jpg  See for Mantova: http://members.virtualtourist.com/m/3001d/24528/4/

Fig. 178 (p. 236) – The Round Church in Cambridge (England). Image from Church Plans Online. Published by the NOF Digitise Architecture England Consortium. Int70/9496;  Int126/16997; Int136/18369; Int243/32703. Drawing by Marten Kuilman. http://www.crbi.ac.uk/ed/ca/cahsc/i9138.htm

Fig. 179 (p. 237) – The Holy Sepulchre in Northampton. Fig. 188 in: GÖTZ, Wolfgang (1968). Zeltralbau und Zentralbautendenz in der Goti-schen Architektur. Gebr. Mann Verlag GmbH., Berlin. The Church of the Holy Sepulchre is the largest and best-preserved round church in England, built between 1100 and 1108. DOC 75/9030.

Fig. 180 (p. 238) – The Tempietto of Donato Bramante in the San Pietro in Montorio. Drawing by Marten Kuilman. Fig. 1, p. 196 in: MATT, von, Leonard & BARELLI, Franco (1975). Rome. Tijdperken van kunst en kultuur. Cantecleer bv, de Bilt/Verlag M. DuMont Schauberg, Köln. ISBN 91 213 0305 1.   P. 122 in: PENNICK, Nigel (1979). The Ancient Scienc of Geomancy. Man in harmony with the earth. Thames and Hudson Ltd., London. Fig. 606 in: JANSON, H.W. (1962/1986). History of Art. Harry N. Abrams, Inc., New York. ISBN 0-8109-1094-2.  P. 22, fig. 36/37 in: BINDUNG, Günther (1987). Architektonische Formenlehre. Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, Darmstadt. ISBN 3-07861-6.  Fig. 209 in: COLVIN, Howard (1991). Architecture and the After-Life. Yale University Press, New Haven and London. ISBN 0-300-05098-4.  Fig. 1 in: DENKER NESSELRATH, Christiane (1990). Die Säulenordnungen bei Bramante. Wernersche Verlagsgesellschaft, Worms. ISBN 3-88462-071-1. DOC41/545300;  DOC84/10245;  DOC86/10513;  DOC90/11066;  DOC92/11389.

Fig. 181 (p. 239) – The Church of Santa Maria Maddalena in Venice. RYKWERT, Joseph (1980). The First Moderns. The Architects of the Eighteenth Century. The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts. ISBN 0-262-18090-1. Drawing by Marten Kuilman. DOC68/8137.

Fig. 182 (p. 239) – The Cathedral of  Brasilia. Drawing by Marten Kuilman after a photo by the writer (2004).

Fig. 183 (p. 240) – Metropolitan Cathedral of Christ the King, Liverpool. YARWOOD, Doreen (1991). The Architecture of Europe. The Nineteenth and Twentieth Century. Ivan R. Dee, Chicago. ISBN 0-929587-65-0. DOC74/8902.

Fig. 185 (p. 244) – The Kaoussie Church, Antioch (Syria). LEVI, Doro (1947). Antioch Mosaic Pavements. Vol. I/II. Princeton Uni-versity Press, Princeton/London University Press, London/Martinus Nijhoff, The Hague. Also (in a more graphical representation) as fig. 31 in: MEYERS, Bernard S. (Ed.)(1985). Landmarks of Western Art. Architecture. Painting. Sculpture. Newnes Books/The Hamlyn Publishing Group Limited/ W.H. Smith. ISBN 0 600 35840 2. DOC46/5870.

Fig. 186 (p. 245) – A plan of the Church of the Prophets, Apostles and Martyrs in Jerash (Jordan). Fig. 30 in: DAVIES, J.G. (1952). The Origin and development of early Christian Church Architecture. SCM Press Ltd., London. DOC73/8693.

Fig. 187 (p. 246) – Convent and Church of St. Simeon Stylites. Ill. 100 in: SMITH, E. Baldwin (Ed.) (1929). Early Churches in Syria. Fourth to seventh centuies. Princeton Monographs in Art and Archaeology. Department of Art and Archaeology. Verlag von Karl Hiersemann in Leipzig. DOC50/62811.

Fig. 188 (p. 247) – Reconstruction of the first building stage of the church at Qal’at Sim’an (Syria). By D. Krencker. In: KLENGEL, Horst (1971). Syria Antiqua. Edition Leipzig. DOC56/6984.

Fig. 189 (p. 248) – The ground plan of Church No. 8 at Bin Bir Kilisse. Fig. 55 in: RAMSEY, W.M. & BELL, Gertrude (1909). The Thousand and One Churches. Hodder and Stoughton, London. DOC84/10270.

Fig. 190 (p. 249) – Some churches in the Kara Dagh region of SE Turkey. 1. Mahaletch (fig. 198); 2. Church No. 12 (fig. 80); Church No. 44 (fig. 181); Church No. 37 (fig. 159) in: RAMSEY, W.M. & BELL, Gertrude (1909). Op. cit. DOC84/10266ff

Fig. 191 (p. 250) – Gertrude Bell (1868 – 1926). Int92/12420ff ; DOC130/17497 – 17500;   DOC162/21862. The Robinson Library. University of New Castle. http://www.gerty.ncl.ac.uk/

Fig. 192  (p. 251) – A map of areas with a relative preference of the church plan based on a Greek cross. Distribution of the aisled tetraconchs by: KLEINBAUER, W. Eugene (1973). The Origin and Functions of the Aisled Tetraconch Churches in Syria and Northern Mesopotamia. Pp. 89vv in: Dumbarton Oaks Papers 27; Harvard University, Washington. ISBN 0-88402-046.

Fig. 193 (p. 252) – A map of central Armenia. GOMBOS, Karoly (1974). Armenia. Landscape and Architecture. University Printing House, Budapest. ISBN 963 13 4605 6. DOC15/2039.

Fig. 194 (p. 253) – Four-fold symmetry in churches in Armenia. KRAUTHEIMER, Richard (1965). Early Christian and Byzantine Archi-tecture. The Pelican History of Art. Nicolaus Pevsner (Ed.). Penguin Books, Harmondsworth, Middlesex (Eng.). DOC12/1544.

Fig. 195 (p. 254) – The chapel of Karmravor in Ashtarak (Armenia). Int81/10908 ©1999 Zabel Artinian. http://www.cilicia.com/armo5_karmravor.html

Fig. 196 (p. 255) – A tetraconch plan of the Palatine chapel of Kvetera, northeast of the capital Tbilisi. According to Mépischavili and Tsintsadzé.  The small church at Kvetera dated back to the first half of the 10th century. It is part of a split-level palace complex.  CSEMEGI-TOMPOS (1975) noted that the church is similar to the domed cross-plan of the six-seventh century churches. Modern scholars do not connect the Kvetera church with the Armenian constructions of Achtamar (915-921) and Varagavank (1021), like Strzygowski did. Erzsébet Csemegi-Tompos said (p. 54) that: ‘It is certainly notable that churches reviving the combination of the cross and the octagon appeared in several places, where Christian states had triumphed in their struggle against Islam. This conception evolved not only in the Caucasus region, but also in Athens during the tenth century, for example, in the Oriental solution of the Hagioi Apostoli.’ DONABEDIAN, Patrick (1989). L’Architecture religieuse en Georgie autour de l’an mille. Pp. 83 – 119 in: Les Cahiers de Saint-Michel de Cuxa. Centre permanent de Recherches & d’Etudes preromanes & romanes. Abbaye de Saint-Michel de Cuxa, Prades-Codalet. Juillet 1989, no. 20. DOC15/2056.

Fig. 197 (p. 256) – Some variations on a four-fold theme in Georgia. DONABEDIAN, Patrick (1989).  Op. cit. DOC15/2057ff.

Fig. 198 (p. 257) – The Dschwari (Cross) Church near Mzcheta (Georgia). p. 143 in: REISSNER, Ilma (1989). Georgien. Geschichte. Kunst. Kultur. Verlag Herder, Freiburg im Bresgau. ISBN 3-451-21454-7. DOC22/after 3095.

Fig. 199 (p. 258) – Plan of the church complex of Aghthamar (Lake Van, Turkey). P. 248 in: BOCK, Ulrich (1988). Georgien und Armenien: zwei christliche Kulturlandschaften im Süden der Sowjetunion. Dumont Buchverlag, Köln. ISBN 3-7701-1464-7. DOC22/after 3102.

Fig. 200 (p. 261) – Section and plan of the Hagia Sophia, Istanbul (Turkey). Fig. 312/313 in: JANSON, H.W. (1962/1986). History of Art. Harry N. Abrams, Inc., New York. ISBN 0-8109-1094-2. DOC84/10228.

Fig. 201 (p. 262) – Original plan of the oratory of Germany-des-Prés. Fig. 55/56 in: STRZYGOWSKI, Jozef (1930). Heidnisches und Christliches um das Jahr 1000. Der Norden in der bildenden Kunst Westeuropeas. Pp. 210 – 267 in: WIMMER, Friedrich (1930). Zur Entstehung der Kreuzförmigen Basilika des Abendlandes.  A slightly different plan is given as fig. 7 in: BECKWITH, John (1987). Vroeg-middeleeuwse kunst. Karolingisch, Ottoons, Romaans. Gaade & Co., Uitgevers, Veenendaal. ISBN 9060177525.  DOC20/2942;  DOC85/10409;  Int130/17528 – 17532. See also:http://perso.wanadoo.fr/police.daniel/Riboul/Germigny.htm

Fig. 202 (p. 263) – Church of the Holy Trinity, Germany-des-Prés. Drawing after a photo by Marten Kuilman (2005).

Fig. 203 (p. 265) – Church of Santa Maria in Bretona (Galicia, Spain). Drawing after a photo by Marten Kuilman (1997).

Fig. 204 (p. 266) – Church in Tartlau/Siebenbürge. GÖTZ, Wolfgang (1968). Zentralbau und Zentralbautendenz in der Goti-schen Architektur. Gebr. Mann Verlag GmbH., Berlin. DOC75/8992; Int237/31847ff.

Fig. 205 (p. 267) – An aerial photograph of the church of Tartlau (Prejmer, Rumania). Photo: Georg Gerster; Source: Siebenbürgen-Institute Archiv. http://www.siebenburger-online.de/ortschaften/tertlau/index.html  Also in: GERSTER, Georg & RILL, Martin (1997). Siebenbürgen im Flug. Wehrkirchen, Dörfer, Städte und Landschaften. Edition Wort und Welt, München. Drawing by Marten Kuilman. Int105/14153ff.

Fig. 206 (p. 268) – The Eglise Emanuel (Abuguna, Ethiopia). Source: Francisco Alvarez (1558). Historiale description de l’Ethiopie, Plantijn, Antwerpen. In: COCKX-INDESTEGE, Elly & NAVE, de, Francine (1989). Christoffel Plantijn en de exacte wetenschappen in zijn tijd. Gemeentekrediet, Brussel. ISBN 90-5066-049-5. DOC42/5504

Fig. 207 (p. 269) – The churches of Lalibela (Ethiopia). BIDDER, Irmgard (1958). Lalibela. Monolithkirchen in Äthiopien. Verlag M. DuMont Schauberg, Köln. DOC85/10368.

Fig. 208 (p. 270) – An aerial view of Betä Giyorgis (House of St. Georg) in the Lalibela Complex (Ethiopia). GERSTER, Georg (1970). Kirchen im Fels. Entdeckungen in Äthiopien. W. Kohlhammer GmbH, Stuttgart (Churches in Rock. Early Christian Art in Ethiopia, London).  A drawing by Marten Kuilman after: Betä Ghiorghis (St. George) cruciform church in Lalibela (Ethiopia). ©Ethiopia travel. http://www.ethiopiatravel.com/Lalibele_eng.htm See also: http://home.wanadoo.nl/spaansen/lalibela.htm Photo: Jos Spaansen (2003), The Netherlands. DOC85/10334; Int127/17100.

Fig. 209 (p. 271) – Tetradic decorations in the Enda Abuna Aragawi (Dabra Damos), Ethiopia. GERSTER, Georg (1970). Op. cit. DOC85/10324.

Fig. 210 (p. 272) – Plan of the Betä Madhane Alam in the northern part of the Lalibela Complex. Beta Madhane Alam (Erlöserkirche). 33,7 x 23,7 x 11,5 meters. Pl. 56 in: GERSTER, Georg (1970). Op. cit. The eastern front of Medhane Alem – with ornaments between pillars – is given as fig. 38 in: BIDDER, Irmgard (1958). Op. cit. DOC85/10329; DOC85/10371.

Fig. 211 (p. 273) – The view of Betä Giyorgis from ground level. Int127/17089; Int127/17099. Drawing by Marten Kuilman after: http://www.selamta.net/lalibela.htm and:http://www.ethiopiatravel.com/Lalibela_eng.htm I

Fig. 212 (p. 273) – The ground plan of Betä Giorgis. GERSTER, Georg (1970). Op. cit. DOC85/10333.

Fig. 213 (p. 274) – The temples of Ellora in India. BIDDER, Irmgard (1958). Op. cit. ‘The only known examples of Lalibela-type of religious building’ has to be understood in terms of size. The cave churches of Cappadocia (Turkey) have a similar genetic history. They are cut in the soft volcanic rocks (tuffs) of the Göreme Valley. Many cave churches and monastic residences have fresco paintings with religious motives and graffiti, made by monks and laymen. The highlights of artistic expression was from the beginning of the tenth century through the first three quarters of the eleventh century. The Battle of Manzikert in 1071 caused a transition of power from the Christian, Greek-speaking Byzantines to the Moslem Turks. The cross-in-square plan (like the Kiliçlar Kilise) was influenced by the Bodrum Camii in Istanbul’. See: WHARTON, Annabel J. (1988). Art of Empire. Painting and Archi-tecture of the  Byzantine Periphery. A Comparitive Study of Four Provinces. The Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park and London. ISBN 0-271-00495-9. The village of Aubeterre-sur-Dronne (Charente, France) has a small monolithic church (Saint Jean), dating from the twelfth century. DOC85/10366.

Fig. 214 (p. 275) – Plan of the Sta Maria delle Carceri in Prato. Giuliano da Sangallo (1485). Fig. 577/559 in: JANSON, H.W. (1962/1986). History of Art. Harry N. Abrams, Inc., New York. ISBN 0-8109-1094-2. DOC84/10243.

Fig. 215 (p. 276) – Bramante’s plan for St. Peter, Rome. RASMUSSEN, Steen E. (1959). Experiencing Architecture. Chapman & Hall, London. See for a comparison with Michelangelo’s St. Peter also: TATARKIEWICZ, Wladyslaw (1974). History of Aesthetics. Vol. III. Modern Aestetics. D. PETSCH (Ed.). Mouton, The Hague/Paris. DOC78/9402 ; DOC3/259.

Fig. 216 (p. 277) – A plan of St. Peter’s in Rome by Michelangelo, 1546 – 1564. Fig. 626 in: JANSON, H.W. (1962/1986). Op. cit.  Also, in another orientation, in: PEVSNER, Nikolaus (1943/1961). An Outline of European Architecture. Penguin Books Ltd./Pelican Books, Harmondsworth, Middlesex, England. DOC84/10250; DOC68/8176; DOC3/259.

Fig. 217 (p. 278) – St Peter in Rome with the Piazzo San Pietro. Engraving by G. B. Falda (1643 – 1678). http://www.romamor.it/stampe_anticheng/falda1.htm Giovanni Falda is known from his books ‘Palazzi di Roma’ (Palaces of Rome, 1655), ‘Giardini di Roma’ (1670) and ‘Le Fontane di Roma’ (1675).  For further information (plan of the Piazza di S. Pietro), see fig. 33 in: BRINCKMANN, A.E. (1923). Platz und Monument als künstlerisches Formproblem. Verlegt bei Ernst Wasmuth, Berlin. Piazza San Pietro from Nolli’s Map of Rome, 1748. Fig. 3-10 in: TRANCIK, Roger (1986). Finding Lost Space. Theories of Urban Design. Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, New York. ISBN 0-442-28399-7. DOC66/7899ff ;DOC70/8310.

Fig. 218 (p. 279) – The rebuilding of the St. Peter on the CF-graph of the European cultural history as interpreted by Marten Kuilman (2005).

Fig. 219 (p. 280) – Plan of the Roche Abbey, a Cistercian monastery in Sandbeck Park, Maltby.  DOC49/6217. LAWRENCE, C.H. (1984). Medieval Monasticism. Forms of religious life in Western Europe in the Middle Ages. Longman, London & New York. ISBN 0-582-49185-1. ‘As part of a programme to enhance his family seat at Sandbeck Park, in 1775 Lord Scarbrough commissioned Capability Brown to landscape the area. With little regard to the archaeological importance of Roche Abbey, Brown  extensively  demolished  the remaining buildings, constructed  huge earth terraces, and turfed across the entire site, leaving only the two transepts as ‘romantic’ features in the grounds. Until the end of the 19th century the remains of Roche lay disguised beneath Brown’s wooded parkland, but with a successful programme of excavation during the 1920s, Roche was ‘reborn’ out of the ground’. http://www.rotherhamweb.co.uk/h/sandbeck.htm

Fig. 220 (p. 281) – Plan of the Cathedral of Uppsala. Carolus Linnaeus (1707 – 1778), founder of the classification of plants and anilmals, is buried in the Uppsala Cathedral. ‘He lies at rest together with his wife and son, just to the right of the main entrance. In 1708 a 30´ (9 m) momument of Älvdal porphyry, incorporating a bronze medallion by Sergel, was placed in a chapel near the grave’. (In: GARDINER, Brian G. (2007). The Linnean Tercentenary. Some Aspects of Linnaeus’ Life). http://www.linnean.org/fileadmin/images/The_Linnean_-_Tercentenary/6-Uppsala.pdf NORDSTRÖM, Folke (1956). Virtues and Vices on the 14th Century Corbels in the Choir of Uppsala Cathedral. Almqvist & Wiksell, Stockholm. DOC49/6210; Int68/9210 – 9214.

Fig. 221 (p. 282) – The west elevation of the Cathedral of Auxerre (France). KRIER, Rob (1988). Architectural Composition. Rizzoli International Publi-cations, Inc., New York. ISBN 0-8478-0965-X. DOC73/8751.

Fig. 222 (p. 283) – Early examples of piers with detached shafts. Fig. 156 in BONY, Jean (1983). French Gothic Architecture of the 12th and 13th Centuries (California Studies in the History of Art; 20) University of California Press, Berkeley. ISBN 0-520-02831-7. DOC65/7856.

Fig. 223 (p. 284) – A plan of the ambulatory vaults in the Saint Denis Cathedral in Paris. Fig. 83 p. 91/92 in: BONY, Jean (1983). Op. cit. DOC65/7838.

Fig. 224 (p. 285) – A reconstruction of the west facade of the Chartres Cathedral. Fig. 91 in: BONY, Jean (1983). Op. cit. DOC65/7842.

Fig. 225 (p. 286) – The distribution in place and time of a selecion of Gothic cathedrals  in Western Europe by Marten Kuilman, mainly after: BONY, Jean (1983). Op. cit.

Fig. 226 (p. 287) – Plan of church towers. Above: Lesterps (Charente); Below: Saint-Benoit-sur-Loire. Fig. 78-79 in: ECKSTEIN, Hans (1975/1977). Die Romanische Architektur. Der Stil und seine Formen. Verlag M. DuMont Schauberg, Köln. ISBN 3-7701-0817-5. DOC65/7826-7827.

Fig. 227 (p. 288) – West façade of the Bourges Cathedral, France. Fig. 1 in: BRANNER, Robert (1989). The Cathedral of Bourges and Its Place in Gothic Architecture. The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts/London, England. ISBN 0-262-02276-1. Drawing by Marten Kuilman after photo by the Compagnie des Arts Photomécaniques/Roger-Viollet. The four-pointed rose window of the western façade (grande housteau) was probaly commisioned by Jean, Duc de Berry (1340 – 1416) at the end of the fourteenth century (c. 1390; glass after 1452). The lozenge shape moved away from the Rayonnant forms. DOC112/13886.

Fig. 228 (p. 289) – The west façade modules of the Amiens Cathedral. MURRAY, Stephen (1989). Beauvais Cathedral. Architecture of Transcen-dence. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey. ISBN 0-691-04236-5  And fig. 7.3 in: MURRAY, Stephen (2002). Reconciling the Feet at Beauvais and Amiens Cathedrals. Ch. 7 in: WU, Nancy Y. (Ed.) (2002). Ad Quadratum. The practical application of geometry in medieval architecture. Ashgate Publishing Ltd., Aldershot, England. ISBN 0 7546 1960 5. DOC71/8433.

Fig. 229 (p. 290) – Some ground plans of the Northern Group of cathedrals in France. Fig. 126 in: BONY, Jean (1983). Op. cit. DOC65/7849.

Fig. 230 (p. 293) – The basilica of Maxentius and Constantine. WHITE, K.D. (1984). Greek and Roman Technology. Thames and Hudson, London. And: DAVIES, J.G. (1952). The Origin and Development of early Christian Church Architecture. SCM Press Ltd., London. Also as fig. 52 in: LOWRIE, Walter (1906). Monuments of the Early Church. The MacMillan Company & Co., Ltd., New York/London. DOC17/2406; DOC73/8674; DOC81/9860.

Fig. 231 (p. 294) – Roman temple in Djmer, Syria. Fig. 1 in: BALDWIN SMITH, E. (1956). Architectural Symbolism of Imperial Rome and the Middle Ages. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey. LCCCN 56-7636. DOC64/7744.

Fig. 232 (p. 295) – Plans of basilicas. Fig. 26 in: LOWRIE, Walter (1906). Op. cit.
DOC81/9848-9849.

Fig. 233 (p. 296) – The old basilica of S. Peter’s in Rome. Fig. 30 in: LOWRIE, Walter (1906). Op. cit. A simpler reconstruction (after Frazer) is given as fig. 288/289 in: JANSON, H.W. (1962/1986). History of Art. Harry N. Abrams, Inc. New York. ISBN 0-8109-1094-2. DOC81/9852; DOC84/10220.

Fig. 234 (p. 297) – The different types of division thinking in Alexandria (Egypt) at the beginning of the Christian era. Interpretation: Marten Kuilman (2005).

Fig. 235 (p. 298) – Coptic textiles. GERSPACH, M. (1975). Coptic Textile Designs. Dover Publications, Inc. ISBN 0-486-22849-5. DOC39/5163/5165/5166/5173.

Fig. 236 (p. 299) – Locaties of the major Coptic Monasteries in Egypt. GABRA, Gawdat (2002). Coptic Monasteries. Egypt’s Monastic Art and Architecture. The American University in Cairo Press, Cairo/New York. ISBN 977 424 691 8. DOC79/9611.

Fig. 237 (p. 300) – The  White Monastery at Sohag (Egypt). Jimmy Dunn – The Monastery of St. Shenouda the Archimandrite (The White Monastery). Drawing by Marten Kuilman after: http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/whitemonastery.htm See for a plan of the Monastery of St. Shenute (White Monastery): GABRA, Gawdat (2002). Coptic Monasteries. Egypt’s Monastic Art and Architecture. The American University of Cairo Press, Cairo/New York. ISBN 977 424 691 8. DOC79/9624.

Fig. 238 (p. 301) – Plan of Red Monastery (left) and St. Menas (right).  CAPUANI, Massimo (1999). Christian Egypt. Coptic Art and Monuments Through Two Millennia. The Liturgical Press, Collegeville, Minnesota. ISBN 0-8146-2406-5. DOC79/9625.

Fig. 239 (p. 302) – Plan of St. Denis in Paris and the abbey church of Fulda (Germany). ECKSTEIN, Hans (1975/1977). Die Romanische Architektur. Der Stil und seine Formen. Verlag M. DuMont Schauberg. Köln. ISBN 3-7701-0817-5. A more elaborated plan of the abbey church Saint-Denis – with the sixteenth century Valois chapel and Mansart’s unexecuted scheme of c. 1662-3 for a Bourbon chapel – is given as fig. 214 in: COLVIN, Howard (1991). Architecture and the After-Life. Yale University Press, New Haven and London. ISBN 0-300-05098-4. DOC90/11067; DOC65/7818; DOC41/5451.

Fig. 240 (p. 303) – A plan of the Elisabeth Church in Marburg (Germany). GÖTZ, Wolfgang (1968). Zentralbau und Zentralbautendenz in der Goti-schen Architektur. Gebr. Mann Verlag GmbH., Berlin. DOC75/8991.

Fig. 241 (p. 304) – The ground plan of the Frauenkriche in Nürnberg (Germany). GÖTZ, Wolfgang (1968). Op. cit. DOC75/9004.

Fig. 242 (p. 307) – A schematic representation of the four basic ground plan of churches. Marten Kuilman.

Fig. 243 (p. 308) – The ground plan of the cathedral of Bosra (Syria). SMITH, E. Baldwin (Ed.) (1929). Early Churches in Syria. Fourth to seventh centuries. Princeton Monographs in Art and Archaeology. Department of Art and Archaeology, Princeton University. Verlag von Karl Hiersemann in Leipzig. Another plan is given as fig. 9 in: KLEINBAUER, W. Eugene (1973). The Origin and Functions of the Aisled Tetraconch Churches in Syria and Northern Mesopotamia. P. 89ff in: Dumbarton Oaks Papers, 27; Harvard University, Washington.ISBN 0-88402-046. DOC50/6282; DOC80/9651.

Fig. 244 (p. 309) – The ground plan of two chapels in Syria. Left: St. George, Zo’rah; AD 515. Fig. 20 in: DAVIES, J.G. (1952). The Origin and Development of Early Christian Church Architecture. SCM Press Ltd., London. Right: Kal’at Simean. DOC73/8683.

Fig.  245 (p. 310) – Various round decorations in early Christian churches in Syria. Ill. 245 in: SMITH, E. Baldwin (Ed.) (1929). Op. cit. DOC50/6286.

Fig. 246 (p. 311) – The Church of the Martyrs Sergius and Bacchus in Constantinople/Istanbul (Turkey). Drawing by Marten Kuilman after Plate 84 in: HÜRLIMANN, Martin (1958). Istanbul. Thames and Hudson, London.

Fig. 247 (p. 312) – The ground plan of the Cathedral of SS Sergius, Bacchus and Leontius in Istanbul. Fig. 22 in: DAVIES, J.G. (1952). Op. cit. DOC73/8686.

Fig. 248 (p 313) – The Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem. CURATOLA, Giovanni (1981/1983). Oriental Carpets. Arnoldo Mondadori Editors S.p., Milano/Souvenir Press, London. ISBN 0 285 62560 8. DOC25B/3531.

Fig. 249 (p. 314) – San Vitale, Ravenna. Drawing by Marten Kuilman. A plan of the St Vitale in Ravenna is given as fig. 21 in: DAVIES, J.G. (1952). Op. cit. A sterometric analysis of the Church of S. Vitale is given as fig. 16 in: KLEINBAUER, W. Eugene (1973). The Origin and Functions of the Aisled Tetraconch Churches in Syria and Northern Mesopotamia. P. 89vv in: Dumbarton Oaks Papers 27; Harvard University, Washington. ISBN 0-88402-046. Photo, plan and transverse section of the S. Vitale as fig. 306 -308 in:JANSON, H.W. (1962/1986). History of Art. Harry N. Abrams, Inc., New York. ISBN 0-8109-1094-2. DOC73/8685.

Fig. 250 (p. 315) – The former Pfalzkapelle in Aachen (Germany). GALL, Ernst (1956) – Dome und Klosterkirchen am Rhein. Hirmer Verlag, München. And: GÖTZ, Wolfgang (1968) – Zentralbau und Zentralbautendenz in der Gotischen Architektur. Gebr. Mann Verlag GmbH., Berlin. DOC72/8626; DOC75/9011.

Fig. 251 (p. 316) – Plan and side view of the Carolingian church in Torhout (Belgium). COURTENS, Andre (1969). Romanische Kunst in Belgien. Verlag Anton Schroll & Co., Wien/München/Marc Vokaer, Bruxelles. DOC19/2749

Fig. 252 (p. 317) – Octagonal church at Ottmarsheim. A drawing by Marten Kuilman after a photo.

Fig. 253 (p. 318) – The ground floor of the church of Ottmarsheim (Alsace).  After Kautzsch. Fig. 65/66 in: GRODECKI, Louis (1958) – L’ Architecture Ottonienne. Armand Colin, Paris. DOC74; 8947.

Fig. 254 (p. 319) –  The ground plans of churches in the Alsace (France).  a) Avolsheim; b) Ottmarsheim; c) Epfig and d) Eschau. DOLLINGER, Philippe (Ed) (1972). Documents de l’Histoire de l’Alsace. Univers de la France. Privat, Toulouse.

Fig. 255 (p. 320) – Duomo of Florence. Drawing by Marten Kuilman after a photo.

Fig. 256 (p. 321) – The plan of the Duomo in Florence. First plan by Arnolfo di Cambio (1293) with extentions by Francesco Talenti, ca. 1357-1367. Final execution by Brunelleschi (1437). Fig. 123 in: GÖTZ, Wolfgang (1968). Op. cit. DOC75/9014

Fig. 257 (p. 322) – The Church of S. Maria degli Angeli in Florence. Filippo Brunelleschi started in  1434. Fig. 52 en 53 in: PEVSNER, Nikolaus (1943/1961). An Outline of European Architecture. Penguin Books Ltd.,/Pelican Books, Harmondsworth, Middlesex. DOC68/8168.

Fig. 258 (p. 323) – An octagonal temple in Mainz.  BEHN, Friedrich (1963) – Römertum und Völkerwanderunbg. Mitteleuropa zwischen Augustus und Karl dem Grossen. J.G. Cotta’sche Buchhandlung Nachf. GmbH., Stuttgart. DOC22/3104.

Fig. 259 (p. 324) – A number of churches with an octagonal ground plan in Germany. A.    Plan of the Busdorf Church in Paderborn. Fig. 154 in: GÖTZ, Wolfgang (1968). Op. cit. See also: Grundrisse. Grabeskirche Jerusalem (Arkulfplan, after 674), Busforfkirche in Paderborn (1036), Krukenberg-Kirche (1126), and Michaelskirche in Fulda (820 – 822, renovation 11th century). In: SCHWERING-ILLERT, Gisela (1963). Die ehemalige französiche Abtei-kirche Saint-Sauveur in Charroux (Vienne) im 11. und 12. Jh. Inaugural-Dissertation der Rheinischen Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität zu Bonn. Zentral-Verlag für Dissertationen Triltsch, Düsseldorf. The Dome in Padernborn, officially called the St. Libore and St. Kilian Cathedral, is of the basilica-type. A plan of the ‘Eglise Saint-Sauveur’ (a misnomer) in Paderborn (according to Thuemmler) is given as fig. 10 in: GRODECKI, Louis (1958). L’Architecture Ottonienne. Armand Colin, Paris. ‘The Kaiserpfalz behind the cathedral is a reconstruction. In 1964 archeologists found the foundation of Charlemagne’s palace, the very same place where king and pope had negotiated the coronation in 799.
Until 1977 the archeologists also unearthed the much better preserved palace of Heinrich II, built in the early 11th century. The finds allowed a reconstruction of this building that includes historical substance.’ (Kathrin, Karlsruhe). http://www.virtualtourist.com/travel/Europe/Germany/Land_Nordrhein_Westfalen/Paderborn-29492/Things_To_Do-Paderborn-BR-1.html   DOC74/8938; DOC93/11493.  B. A plan of the crypt of the Stephans Church in Kourim, Bohemen (45 kilometers east of Prague (Czech Republic). Fig. 154 in: GÖTZ, Wolfgang (1968). Op. cit.  The church dated from 13th century and is a prominent example of early Gothic architecture. The rosewindow in the tower has three circles.  ‘The recent discovery of medieval murals of more than twenty angels playing musical instruments, on the vault of St. Catherine’s crypt in St. Stephen’s Church in Kourim, Central Bohemia, represents a rich contribution to organology. The Kourim murals are considered the largest fully preserved set of images of music instruments from the High Middle Ages in the Bohemian Lands. The paintings were created at the beginning of the 15th century. Around the mid-15th century they were whitewashed, and thus spared later changes; it is therefore possible to believe them to be faithful documents of their time. The murals represent commonly used, as well as rare, instruments. Of greatest importance here is the mural of the tromba marina, enriching current knowledge about the use of this instrument from geographical and chronological points of view. With the help of a detailed description and comparison with other period sources, the article attempts to shed more light on music instruments used at the turn of the 14th and 15th centuries’. Abstract from: MATOUSEK, Lukas (2009). New Discovery of medieval music instrument murals in Kourim (Nove objevena vyobrazeni stredovekych hudebnich nastroju v Kourimi). Pp. 5 – 30 in: Hudebni veda (Musicology), Vol. 46, number: 1-2. http://cejsh.icm.edu.pl/cejsh/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?09CZAAAA06781 – DOC 75/9022. C. A plan of the crypt of the S. Aegidius Church in Oschatz (Saxony). Fig. 161 in: GÖTZ, Wolfgang (1968). Op. cit. The Gothic church burned down in 1842 and was rebuild between 1846 and 1849. DOC75/9023. D. The (former) SS Maria and Laurentius Church in Ludorf (Mecklenburg). Fig. 147 in: GÖTZ, Wolfgang (1968). Op. cit.  DOC75/9019.

Fig. 260 (p. 325) – The octagonal church of Ludorf (Saxony, Germany). Drawing by Marten Kuilman. From: Ludorfer Oktogonkirche – Wege zur Backsteingotik. Int137/18432 http://www.absolut-mecklenburg.de/kunden/ludorf/app/index.php?seite=41

Fig. 261 (p. 326) – Karner in Oedenburg (Lower Austria). GÖTZ, Wolfgang (1968). Op. cit. DOC75/9017.

Fig. 262 (p. 327) – The Saint Sauveur in Charroux (Vienne, France). ECKSTEIN, Hans (1975) – Die Romanische Architektur. Der Stil und seine Formen. Verlag M. DuMont Schauberg. ISBN 3-7701-0817-5. Drawing by Marten Kuilman. DOC25B/3533.

Fig. 263 (p. 328) – Gertraudenkapelle at Wolgast (Pommern, Germany). GÖTZ, Wolfgang (1968). Op. cit. DOC75/9025.

Fig. 264 (p. 329) – Plan of S. Sofia, circa 760 AD. Fig. 1 in: LEONARDIS, Rocco (2002) – The Plan of S. Sofia: A View into Early Medieval Design. Pp. 105 – 122 in: Architectura. Zeitschrift für Geschichte der Baukunst – Journal of te History of Architecture. Band 32/2002. DOC70/after 8393.

Fig. 265 (p. 330) – The rotated square (as a design diagram). Fig. 10-11 in: LEONARDIS, Rocco (2002). Op.cit. DOC70/after 8393.

Fig. 266 (p. 331) – The Platonic Solids. Regular Polyhedra or Platonic Solids: Tetrahedron, Cube, Octahedron, Dodecahedron, Icosahedron. Drawing by Marten Kuilman. Int137/18515.

Fig. 267 (p. 332) – The Communication Graph of the European cultural period as interpreted by Marten Kuilman. The communication cycle (V) starts at the beginning of the Christian calendar (1 AD). The beginning of the visibility period X is positioned in the year 750 AD, when the reign of Charlemagne marked an effort to create a united Europe.

Fig. 268 (p. 334) – The ‘Tower of Winds’ in Athens. Drawing by Marten Kuilman after: BOARDMAN, John (Ed.) – The Oxford History of Classical Art. Oxford University Press, Oxford. ISBN 0-19-81433386-9  See also: p. 268 in: BALTRUSAITIS, Jurgis (1938) – Roses des vents et roses de personnages a l’epoque romane. Pp. 265 – 276 in: Gazette des Beaux-Arts, 1938 (2e sem.). Georges Wildenstein (Ed.). DOC31/4299; DOC34/after 4661.

Fig.  269 (p. 335) – Fortune telling by means of a magnetic needle. The Tomb of the Painted Basket. Drawing by W.P. Yetts in: HADINGHAM, Evan (1983) – Early Man and the Cosmos. William Heine-mann Ltd., London. SBN 434 31108 1. FOUR II; p. 300; fig. 180.

Fig. 270 (p. 336) – The construction of rose windows. NETZ, Johannes (1982) – Der Steinmetz. Fachbuch für Ausbildung und Praxis. Callwey Verlag, München. ISBN 3-7667-0620-9. DOC47/5977.

Fig. 271 (p. 337) – Rose window at St. Denis, Paris. Drawing by Marten Kuilman after: COWEN, Painton (1979;1992/2005) – Rose Windows. Thames & Hudson Ltd., London. ISBN 0 500 81021 4. DOC74/8913.

Fig. 272 (p. 338) – Rose windows of the cathedral of Laon, France. Drawing by Marten Kuilman after: SIMSON, von, Otto (1956/1988) – The Gothic Cathedral. Origins of Gothic Architecture and the Medieval Concept of Order. Bollingen Series XLVIII. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey. ISBN 0-691-09959-6. DOC62/7448; DOC74/8915.

Fig. 273 (p. 339) – The rose windows of the Chartres Cathedral, France. SIMSON, von, Otto (1956/1988). Op. cit. And: BONY, Jean (1983) – French Gothic Architecture of the 12th and 13th Centuries. (California Studies in the History of Art; 20). University of California Press, Berkeley. ISBN 0-520-02831-7. DOC62/7451; DOC62/7450; DOC65/7858; DOC74/8914.

Fig. 274 (p. 340) – The visible visibility area X (750 – 2250 AD) of the European cultural period. Interpretation by Marten Kuilman. VIER, p. 353; fig. 216. DOC111/13831.

Fig. 275 (p. 341) –  Rota fortunae. John Rylands Library, Manchester MS Latin 83, fol. 66v  of  214v. RHODES JAMES, Montague (1921) –  A Descriptive Catalogue of the Latin Manuscripts in the John Ryland Library at Manchester (Vol. II: Plates). Plate 110. University Press, Manchester/Longmans Green & Comp., London. Also in: ESMEIJER, Anna C. (9184) – Viri Religiosi Vita sicut Rota ... Het radvenster van St. Etienne in Beauvais als schema van ‘rota’ en ‘bivium’. Pp. 77 – 92 in: HORODISCH, Abraham (Ed.) – De Arte et Libris. Festschrift Erasmus 1934 – 1984, Erasmus Antiquariaat en Boekhandel, Amsterdam. ISBN 90-9000711-3 and: MURRAY, A. (1978) – Reason and Society in the Middle Ages. Clarendon Press, Oxford. And as ‘Glücksrad aus einem Codex in Manchester’, Umkreis in Sud-italien. Fig. 95 in: MERSMANN, Wiltrud (1982). Rosenfenster und Himmelkreise. Mäander Kunstverlag, Mittenwald. ISBN 3-88219-195-3

Fig. 276 (p. 343) – The development of the rose window in four stages. Adapted from: KRIEHN, G. (1913/1996) – Rose Window. Catholic Encyclopedia. Encyclo-pedia Press, Inc. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/15653a.htm Fig. 276 –1 – Notre Dame de Paris, western rose window. Int114/15374. Fig. 276 – 2 – Notre Dame of Reims. The double rose window about the (west) entrance of the Reims cathedral is given by (Pl. 6): McDANNELL, Colleen & LANG, Bernard (1988) – Heaven. A History. Yale University Press, New Haven/London. ISBN 0-300-04346-5. DOC36/4904. Fig. 276-3 – Rose  window (transcept) of Notre Dame Paris, 1257 – 1267, fig. 205 in: MEER, van der, Frits & SCHWARTZ, M.A. (1957) – Panorama van de Westerse beschaving. Elsevier, Amsterdam/Brussel. DOC26/3700. Notre Dame de Paris Cathedral, southern rose window. Int99/13368; Int 114/15379-15380. Notre Dame de Paris Cathedral, northern rose window. Int113/15251; Int 114/15377. Fig. 276-4 – South window of Saint-Quen at Rouen. COWEN, Painton (1979/1992) – Rose Windows. Thames & Hudson Ltd., London. ISBN 0500 810214. DOC74/8918.

Fig. 277 (p. 344) – The Late Gothic rose window in the southern transept of ther Saint Quen in Rouen (France). Drawing by Marten Kuilman after: COWEN, Painton (1979/1992). Rose Windows. Thames & Hudson Ltd., London. ISBN 0 500 81021 4. DOC74/8918.

Fig. 278 (p. 345) Two sketches of rose windows by Villard de Honnecourt. Left: Chartres (Plate 29). Right: Lausanne (Plate 30). JASKOLSKI, Helmut (1994) – Das Labyrinth. Symbol für Angst, Wieder-geburt und Befreiung. Kreuz Verlag, Stuttgart. ISBN 3-7831-1328-8. Also as Pl. 46 in: SIMSON, von, Otto (1956/1988) – The Gothic Cathedral. Origins of Gothic Architecture and the Medieval Concept of Order. Bollingen Series XLVIII. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey. ISBN 0-691-09959-6. DOC29/4043; DOC62/7449.

Fig. 279 (p. 346) – An overview of the number of spokes in 522 medieval rose windows by Painton COWEN (2005) :

Number of spokes                 Number of windows                                                             %

——   2                                                          2                                                                        0.4

——   3                                                         13                                                                        2.5

——   4                                                         43                                                                       8.2

——   5                                                          11                                                                        2.1

——   6                                                         87                                                                      16.6

——   7                                                           1                                                                         0.2

——   8                                                        110                                                                      21.0

——   9                                                          2                                                                         0.4

——   10                                                       22                                                                        4.2

——   11                                                         3                                                                         0.6

——   12                                                     142                                                                       27.1

——   13                                                        2                                                                          0.4

——   14                                                        5                                                                          1.0

——   15                                                        4                                                                          0.8

——   16                                                      49                                                                          9.4

——   18                                                        6                                                                          1.1

——   19                                                        1                                                                          0.2

——   20                                                       5                                                                          1.0

——   22                                                       2                                                                          0.4

——   24                                                       9                                                                          1.7

——   26                                                       3                                                                          0.6

——   30                                                       1                                                                          0.2

——   33                                                       1                                                                          0.2

——————————————————————————————————————————–

———————————– Total  ———   522                                                                     100%

COWEN, Painton (2005). The Rose Window. Splendour and Symbol. Thames & Hudson Ltd., London. ISBN  0-500-51174-8

Fig. 280 (p. 347) –  Three dimensional model of rose windows. CHARBONNEAU, Nathalie; BOULERICE, Dominic & BOOTH, David, W. (2006). Computer-aided modeling applied to architectural know-how: the Gothic rose window. http://itcon.org/2006/26/

Fig. 281 (p. 348) – The southern rose window of the Cathedral the Notre Dame, Paris. Drawing by Marten Kuilman after a photo by Atkielski (1999). http://ww.atkielski.com/PhotoGallery/Paris/NotreDame/RoseWindowLarge.html

Fig. 282 (p. 349) – Reconstruction of the rose window in the cathedral of Lausanne. After E. Beer (1952). Fig. 23 in: ESMEIJER, Anna C. (1978) – Divina Quaternitas. A Preliminary Study in Method and Application of Visiual Exegesis. Van Gorcum, Assen/ Am-sterdam. ISBN 90 232 1567 2  Also given on p. 130 in: COWEN, Painton (1979/1992). Op. cit. and  in: BEER, Ellen J. (1975) – Les vitraux du Moyen Age de la cathedral. In: BIAUDET, Jean Charles et al. (1975) – Le Cathedral de Lausanne. Biblio-thèque de la Société d’Histoire de l’Art en Suisse. 3. Société d’Histoire de l’Art en Suisse, Berne. ISBN 3 85 78203017. DOC16/2149; DOC74/8925; DOC13/1764.

Fig. 283 (p. 350) – Lausanne rose window. Drawing by Marten Kuilman, after a photo by the author (2009).

Fig. 284 (p. 353) – The cupola of the cathedral in Zamora (Spain). Drawing by Marten Kuilman after: PALOL, Pedro de & HIRMER, Max (1965) – Spanien. Kunst des frühen Mittelalters vom Westgotenreich bis zum Ende der Romanik. Hirmer Verlag, München. DOC7/690.

Fig. 285 (p. 354) – The vaulting in the Saint Pierre Cathedral of Beauvais. Drawing by Marten Kuilman. Nicolas Janberg’s Structurea. ID 3174.  Photo: Jacques Mossot.  Int61/8250;  Int99/13352; Int133/17942 http://en.structurae.de/files/photos/64/beauvais16.jpg

Fig. 286 (p. 355) – Vault in the portico of the Cathedral of Sainte-Cécile in Albi (France). 1282 – 1480. Int139/18799. Drawing by Marten Kuilman after: http://www.thais.it/architettura/Gotica/HR/019.htm

Fig. 287 (p. 356) – The ‘Gwirgwini’ type of roof in Georgia. REISSNER, Ilma (1989) – Georgien. Geschichte. Kunst. Kultur. Verlag Herder, Freiburg im Bresgau. ISBN 3-451-21454-7. For a similar type of roof in the Ulu Mosque in Erzurum (Seljuk, c. 1150), see fig. 717 in: JANSON, H.W. (1962/1986). History of Art. Harry N. Abrams, Inc., New York. ISBN 0-8109-1094-2. Christina MARANCI (2001; fig. 111) gives drawings of wooden dwellings with a hazarašen construction, which is similar to the ‘gwirgwini’. They were originally given as fig. 74 in: KHATCHATRIAN, Armen (1971). L’Architecture arménienne du IVe au VIe siècles. ISBN 9782252011164. DOC22/3096; DOC84/10259; DOC111/13869.

Fig. 288 (p. 357) – The Qusayr`Amra complex in Jordan. Drawing by Marten Kuilman after photo in: Haarlems Dagblad. Wereldbeschavingen: Qusayr’Amra. Febr. 2006; Ned. 1: 23.15 – 23.50u.

Fig. 289 (p. 358) – The zodiac ceiling in the Temple of Bel in Palmyra (Syria). Drawing in Wood and Dawkins’ ‘The Ruins of Palmyra otherwise Tedmor, in the Desart’; London, 1753. ‘No such meticulous and handsome archaeological work had yet appeared in the English language, and the nation could feel proud to have a worthy competitor for the lavish folios produced in France and Italy’ (RIBA). The plates were engraved by Pierre Fourdrinier, Thomas Major and J.S. Muller, Jr., after drawings by J.B. Borra, the Italian architect who accompanied Wood and James Dawkins on their tour of Asia Minor in 1750-51’. DOC56/6911.

Fig. 290 (p. 359) – The geometric patterns on a ceiling in Palmyra (Syria). From: Robert Wood (1753) – The Ruins of Palmyra. Fig. 28 in: BROWNING, Iain (1979). Palmyra. Chatto & Windus, London. ISBN 0-7011-2266-8. DOC56/6908.

Fig. 291 (p. 360) – The central vault of the Mosque Bib al Mardum in Toledo (Spain). Drawing by Marten Kuilman.

Fig. 292 (p. 361) – Some of the smaller domes in the Mosque Bib-al-Mar-dum at Toledo (Spain), completed in 999. Int139/18739. Drawing by Marten Kuilman after: http://www.cartage.org.lb/en/themes/arts/Architec/MiddleAgesArchitectural/IslamicAr http://www.thais.it/architettura/Gotica/HR/019.htm

Fig. 293 (p. 362) – Decoration of a ceiling in Pompeii. House of the Lovers. LING, Roger (1991). Roman Painting. Cambridge University Press, Cam-bridge. ISBN 0 521 30614 0. DOC9/1138.

Fig. 294 (p. 363) – The complivium (roof) in a Tuscan atrium. JOHNSTON, Harold W. (1903/1932). The Private Life of the Romans. Scott, Foresman an Company. Ch. 6, fig. 81. DOC141/19019. http://www.forumromanum.org/life/johnson_6.html

Fig. 295 (p. 364) – Zeno chapel at the Santa Prassede, Rome; 817 – 824. STEINEN, van der, Wolfram (1965). Homo Caelestis. Das Wort der Kunst im Mittelalter. II Bild Band. Francke Verlag, Bern/München (1965). Drawing by Marten Kuilman. DOC9/1056.

Fig. 296 (p. 365) – Porch in the Wells Cathedral (England). Drawing by Marten Kuilman after a photograph by the author.

Fig. 297 (p. 366) – The ceiling of the Grossen Rempter in Marienburg. NETZ, Johannes (1982). Der Steinmetz. Fachbuch für Ausbildung und Praxis. Callwey Verlag München. ISBN 3-7667-0620-9. DOC47/5975.

Fig. 298 (p. 367) – Graffiti in English churches. PRITCHARD, V. (1967). English Medieval Graffiti. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. LCCN 66 – 11034. See also the website of Simon Knott: www.suffolkchurches.co.uk/cowlinge.htm. DOC2/125 – 129.

Fig. 299 (p. 368) – Sand painting from the island of Malekula. DEACON, A.Bernard (1934). Geometrical drawings from Malekula and other islands of the New Hebrides. Pp. 129 – 176 + Pl. XIII in: The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland. Vol. LXIV (Jan – June 1934). Deacon’s collection remained incomplete, because he became a victim of cannibalism (kakae). The Ni-Vanuata – People of the Land – live over eighty islands and speak about hundred distinct traditional languages. Bislama functiones as the linking language between the indigenous vernacular and both English and French. For instance, the word for piano is: samting blong watman wtem blak mo waet tut, sipos yu kilim, hem I save krae arot, meaning ‘a whiteman’s thing with black and white teeth; if you strike it, it cries out.’ John Layard (1942) gave examples of the sand drawings in his book ‘Stone Men of Malkula Vao’. See also the drawings of the Malekula Islands in: SANTARCANGELI, Paolo (1984). Il libro dei Labirinti. Storia di un mito e di un simbolo. Frassinelli, Milano. ISBN 88-76845-015-X. DOC14/1893; DOC15/1999.

Fig. 300 (p. 369) – Southern portal of the Holy Trinity Church in Torbryan (Devon, England). According to Howard. Drawing by Marten Kuilman after: LEEDY Jr., Walter C. (1980). Fan Faulting. A Study of Form, Technology, and Meaning. Scolar Press, London. ISBN 0 85967 6102. DOC15/2105.

Fig. 301 (p. 370) – St. John Parish Church in Burford (Oxfordshire). Drawing by Marten Kuilman after: LEEDY Jr., Walter C. (1980). Op. cit. DOC15/2094.

Fig. 302 (p. 371) – The CF-graph of the European cultural history between 600 and 1500 AD as given by Marten Kuilman.

Fig. 303 (p. 373) – The labyrinth and other motifs on the ceiling of the Maaria Kyrka in Turku, Southern Finland. KRAFT, John & SAWARD, Jeff (1991/2005). Labyrinths in Nordic Churches. Pp. 29 – 37 in: Caerdroia 24 (1991). Int134/18112 – 18118.

Fig. 304 (p. 374) – The ceiling of the Grand Salon in the Villa Madama in Rome. Jules Romain (1499 – 1546) and Giovanni da Udine (1487 – 1564). Drawing by Marten Kuilman after: CHASTEL, Andre (1968). La Crise de la Renaissance. 1520 – 1600. Editions d’Art Albert Skira, Geneve. See important precursor of Palladio’s own work. Fig. 3 – 4 in: CONSTANT, Caroline (1985). The Palladio Guide. The Architectural Press, London. ISBN 0 85139 520 1. DOC78/9498.

Fig. 305 (p. 376) – The ceiling of the Ball Room at 20 Portman Square, London. Paintings by Angelica Kauffmann, plaster in the style of Robert Adam, c. 1780. Drawing by Marten Kuilman after: EVANS, Joan (1975). Pattern – A Study of Ornament in Western Europe from 1180 to 1900. Hacker Art Books, New York. ISBN 0-87817-151-7. A ground plan of Syon House by Robert Adam (1772) is given (fig. 5.8) in: CONWAY, Hazel & ROENISCH, Rowan (1994/2005). Understanding Architecture. An introduction to architecture and architectural history. Routledge, Abingdon, Oxon./New York. ISBN 0-415-32059-3. DOC8/939; DOC109/13514.

Fig. 306 (p. 377) – The tetrahedron of Richard Buckminster Fuller. Drawing by Marten Kuilman. Int119/15986; Int144/19390; 19405 – 19430;  Int218/29477.

Fig. 307 (p. 379) – The mosaic near Megiddo (Israel). Int239/32089; Int 145/19490 – 19496. Drawing by Marten Kuilman after: http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2005/11/photogalleries/oldest_church/image

Fig. 308 (p. 381) – Mosaics in the Hospitalia (guest suites) of the Villa Hadrianus. Built in the first phase of the project (118 – 125 AD). Drawings by Marten Kuilman after own photographs (2000).

Fig. 309 (p. 382) – A selection of the (restored) mosaics of the Misis-Moptuhestia region in south eastern Turkey (Kilikien). Drawings by Marten Kuilman after: BUDDE, Ludwig (1969). Antike Mosaiken in Kilikien. Band I: Frühchristliche Mosaiken in Misis-Mopsuhestia. Verlag Aurel Bongers, Recklinghausen.

Fig. 310 (p. 385) – The former cosmaten floor of the cloister church of Monte Cassino (Italy).  Dating from 1070. WIHR, Rolf (1985). Fussböden. Stein, Mosaik, Keramik, Estrich. Ge-schichte, Herstellung, Restaurierung. Georg D.W. Callwey, München. ISBN 3-7667-0736-1  Also in (p. 16, fig. 2.8): STOPFORD, J (2005). Medieval Floor Tiles of Northern England. Pattern and Purpose: production between the 13th and 16th centuries. English Heritage/Oxbow Books, Oxford. ISBN 1-84217-142-9. DOC9/1136.

Fig. 311 (p. 386) – The shapes and fitting together of some medevial tiles. WIHR, Rolf (1985). Op. cit. DOC9/1137.

Fig. 312 (p. 387) – Tiles of the ‘quarreau’-type in the abbey of Bebenhausen, Baden Württemberg, Germany. SCHNEIDER, Ambrosius; WIENAND, Adam; BICKEL, Wolfgang & COESTER, Ernst (1977). Die Cistercienser. Geschichte. Geist. Kunst. Wienand Verlag, Köln. ISBN 3 87909 074 2. DOC13/1753.

Fig. 313 (p. 388) – A heraldic pavement in King Edward’s Chapel, Shaf-tesbury. Drawing by Marten Kuilman. The arms of de Bryan are depicted in the third row to the right. http://www.angelfire.com/ca2/bryang/3piles.html ‘Guy, Lord Bryan by writ of summons, and a Garter Knight, was a distinguished soldier who fought at Crecy and Sluys, and was a friend of King Edward III. Burke’s General Armory blazons his arms as Or three piles conjoined in base azure although, as depicted later, the charges have also been shown with their longitudinal axes at right angles to the top edge of the shield rather than converging towards the base. Quite why the de Bryans chose the pile is not recorded although when we remember that it is regarded by some heraldists as a stylized representation of an arrowhead or the point of a lance rather than a stake or post used in bridge-building we probably need to look no further.  The first time the family is mentioned in England (in the person of Wydo de Brione) is around the year 1160 when they held land in Devon – indeed Torbryan in the county carries their name until his day.’ (see fig. 300). Quoted from: Three Piles of Substance – published by The Heraldry Society. Posted by the Sept of the Knight de Bryan Sir Charles Bryant-Abraham, the Knight de Bryan.The Chevalier Guy N. Bryan, KdB, FSAI Commilitonum Honorariorum Commissarius. Originally published in ‘The Gentleman’s Magazine’ (1817). See also: NICHOLS, John Gough (1863). Armorial Pavement at Shaftesbury Abbey. P. 520 in: ‘The Herald and Genealogist, Vol. 1. John Bowyer Nichols and Sons, London/Harvard College Library (1939).

Fig. 314 (p. 389) – Diagram showing the construction of the floor pattern in Piero della Francesca’s painting ‘Flagellation’, Palazzo Ducale, Urbino. WITTKOWER, R. & CARTER, B.A.R. (1953). The Perspective of Piero della Francesca’s ‘Flagellation’. Pp. 292 – 302 in: Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes, London. Vol. 16 (1953). DOC60/7287.

Fig. 315 (p. 391) – The Modulor by Le Corbusier (1950). Fig. 35 p. 102 in: NAREDI-RAINER, von, Paul (1982). Architektur und Harmonie. Zahl, Mass und Proportion in der abendländischen Baukunst. DuMont Buchverlag, Köln. ISBN 3-7701-1196-6  And fig. 187 in: KRUFT, Hanno-Walter (1985/1994). A History of Architectural Theory from Vitruvius to the Present. Zwemmer/Princeton Architectural Press, New York. ISBN 0 0302 00603 6. And p. 114 in: RASMUSSEN, Steen Eiler (1959). Experiencing Architecture. Chapman & Hall, London. DOC26/3774; DOC30/4189; DOC78; 9415.

Fig. 316 (p. 394) – The genesis of the fundamental region. Drawing by Marten Kuilman after Maurits Escher (1898 – 1972) in his book ‘Regelmatige Vlakverdeling’ (1958) – ‘Houtsnede I’ (Woodcut I).

Fig. 317 (p. 397) – Bathhouse C in Antioch. LEVI, Doro (1947). Antioch Mosaic Pavements. Publications of the Committee for the Excavation of Antioch and its Vicinity. Princeton University Press, Princeton.

Fig. 318 (p. 398) – The plans of two large thermal complexes in Rome. A more extended plan of the Thermae of Caracalla (Rome) was given by: FLETCHER, Banister (1975). A History of Architecture (revised by J.C. Palmer). The Athlone Press, University of London. SBN 0 485 55001 6. DOC95/11730.

Fig. 319 (p. 399) –  Plan of the Imperial Baths in Trier (Germany). WEITZMANN, Kurt (1979). Age of Spirituality. Late Antique and Early Christian Art, Third to Seventh Century. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey. Catalogus exposition, Nov. 19, 1977 – Febr 12, 1978. A plan of the Imperial Thermae in Trier is  also given (p. 300) in: FLETCHER, Banister (1975). A History of Architecture (revised by J.C. Palmer). The Athlone Press, University of London. London. SBN 0 485 55001 6. A map of the Imperial City of Trier is given in: PÖRTNER, Rudolf & TADEMA SPORY, Bob (1959/1976). De Romeinen op hun weg naar de Lage Landen. Resultaten van archeologisch onderzoek. Econ Verlag GmbH., Düsseldorf/Wenen; Hollandia BV., Baarn. ISBN 90 6045 914 8.  DOC27/3897. A plan – by the late Dr. Gräven – is given as fig. 30 in: HAVERFIELD, F. (1913). Ancient Town-Planning. At the Clarendon Press, Oxford. DOC100/12409. DOC6/551;  DOC95/11732.

Fig. 320 (p. 400) – The large public baths in Rome are indicated on the CF-graph of the Roman Cultural Presence. Interpretation by Marten Kuilman.

Fig. 321 (p. 402) – The bathing comples of Titus and Trajan in Rome. The plan of the ‘Thermae Titi’ differ considerably with the reconstrcution made by Palladio, which were collected by Lord Burlington and published in 1730. See fig. 25 in: SUMMERSON, John (1983). Die klassische Sprache der Architektur. Vieweg, Braunschweig, Wiesbaden (The Classical Language of Architecture, Thames & Hudson, London, 1980). ISBN 3-528-08763-3. DOC109/13551.

Fig. 322 (p. 403) – The Baths of Caracalla. Int149/20143. Drawing by Marten Kuilman, after: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/ce/BathsOfCaracalla.jpg

Fig. 323 (p. 404) – The theatre of Epidaurus. Drawing by Marten Kuilman (1988).

Fig. 324 (p. 405) – The Roman theatre in Benevento (Italy). Int151/20338. Drawing by Marten Kuilman after: http://www.andreas-praefcke.de/carthalia/italy/i_beneveto_teatroromano.htm

Fig. 325 (p. 406) – A reconstruction of the scaena frons of the South Theatre of Jerash (Jordan). BROWNING, Iain (1982). Jerash and the Decapolis. Chatto & Windus, London. ISBN 0 7011 2591 8. DOC41/5379.

Fig. 326 (p. 407) – The Odeon in Catania (Sicily, Italy). Drawing by Marten Kuilman after: http://upload.wikipedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e7/Catania-Teatro.jpg A restored plan of the Odeion of Herodes Atticus in Athens, built as a memorial to his wife Regilla, is given as fig. 63 in: WYCHERLEY, R.E. (1978). The Stones of Athens. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey. Int151/20392;  Int179/24278.

Fig. 327 (p. 408) – The Flavian Amphitheatre  or Colosseum in Rome.  Int149/20122. Drawing by Marten Kuilman after: http://www.igougo.com/photos/journal_photos/4u.jpg DOC25B/3572. From Goethe – ‘Italienische Reise’, 11.November 1786: ‘Abends kamen wir ans Colosso, da es schon dämmrig war. Wenn man das ansieht, scheint wieder alles andre klein, es ist so gross, dass man das Bild nicht in der Seele behalten kann..’  In: PIES, Eike (1980). Goethe auf Reisen. Begegnungen mit Landschaften und Zeitgenossen. Kunst und Wohnen Verlag GmbH., Wuppertal 2. A construction drawing is given in: WHITE, K.D. (1984). Greek and Roman Technology. Thames and Hudson, London. DOC17/2405. An aerial photo is given in: GIEDION, S. (1969). Architektur und das Phänomen des Wandels. Die drei Raumkonzeptionen in der Architektur. Verlag Ernst wasmuth, Tübingen. DOC12/1621.

Fig. 328 (p. 409) – The amphitheatre of Bosra (Syria).  Drawing by Marten Kuilman after: http://www.traveladventures.org/downloads/bosraamphitheatre03cr.jpg  DOC80/9655. A city plan of Bosra is given as fig. 14 in: KLEINBAUER, W. Eugene (1973). The Origin and Functions of the Aisled Tetraconch Churches in Syria and Northern Mesopotamia. P. 89vv in: Dumbarton Oaks Papers 27; Harvard University, Washington. ISBN 0-88402-046

Fig. 329 (p. 410) – Mosaic in the Palazzo Massimo in Rome depicting a charioteer from each of the four stables. Barbara McManus, 2004. Int151/20448  http://www.vroma.org/images/mcmanus_images/index7.html   http://www.vroma.org/images/mcmanus_images/charioteerscolors2.jpg

Fig. 330 (p. 411) – The ornaments along the central area of the classical racecourse. For a seminal work on this subject, see: HUMPHREY, J.H. (1986). Roman Circuses. Arenas for Chariot Racing. University of California Press, Berkeley, Los Angeles. A review of this book is given by Donald G. Kyle (University of Texas at Arlington) in: Journal of Sport History, Vol. 13, No. 3 (Winter 1988). http://www.la84foundation.org/SportsLibrary/JSH/JSH1988/JSH1503/jsh1503k.pdf  For a review of: Jocelyne Nelis-Clément, Jean-Michel Roddaz (ed.) (2008). Le cirque romain et son image. Actes du colloque tenu à l’institut Ausonius, Bordeaux, 2006. Mémoires, 20. Ausonius, Bordeaux. ISBN 978-2-35613-001-3  see: SOLER, Matthieu (2009) in: Bryn Mawr Classical Review, 2009.11.14 http://bmcr.brynmawr.edu/2009/2009-11-14.html

Fig. 331 (p. 413) – The suggested position of architectural functional features in a quadralectic communication. By the author.

Fig. 332 left (p. 415) – The Hotel in Epidauros. Fig. 68c in:WHITE, K.D. (1984). Greek and Roman Technology. Thames and Hudson, London. DOC17/before 2407. Fig. 332 right (p. 415) – The Temple of Asclepios  in Troizen, Greece. JETTER, Dieter (1986). Das europäische Hospital. Von der Spätantike bis 1800. DuMont Buchverlag, Köln. ISBN 3-7701-1560-0. DOC40/5265.

Fig. 333 (p. 416) – The sanctuary of Asklepios at Pergamon. WARD-PERKINS, J.B. (1970/1981). Roman Imperial Architecture. Penguin Books. ISBN 0 14 0560 45 9. DOC17/2407.

Fig. 334 (p. 418) – The Xenodochium of Pammachius, Porto (Portugal).  Early fifth century AD. Fig. 27e in: LOWRIE, Walter (1906). Monuments of the Early Church. The MacMillan Company & Co., Ltd., New York/London. DOC79/9645. Dieter JETTER (1987; Abb. 96) gives a view and ground plan of the Hospital Real de Todos-dos-Santos, 1492 – 1502. The Hospital, designed by Diego Boitaca? (1450 – 1517), has a distinct cross-shape. Boitaca also designed the initial plan of the Jerónimos Monastery in Lisboa (Portugal).

Fig. 335 (p. 419) – The plan of the St Gallen religious complex. JELLICOE, Geoffrey & Susan (1975/1995). The Landscape of Man. Shaping th Environment from Prehistory to the Present Day. Thames and Hudson Ltd., London. ISBN 0-500-27819-9.  DOC35/4796. PEVSNER, Nikolaus (1943/1961). An Outline of European Architecture. Pelican Books Ltd., Harmondsworth, Middlesex (left side of the map is missing). DOC3/222. ARIES, Philippe & DUBY, Georges (Ed)(1985). Histoire de la vie privée. Sueil, Paris. DOC3/223. DELORT, Robert (1974). Life in the Midle Ages. Phaidon, London. ISBN 0 71481658 2 – DOC11/1417 (Hostel is indicated in a sketch-version as: 24. Imperial Apartments. The actual map shows a text written in the northwest corner. STZYGOWSKI, Jozef (1930). Heidnisches und Christliches um das Jahr 1000. Der Norden in der bildenden Kunst Westeuropas. Pp. 210 – 267 in: WIMMER, Friedrich (1930). Zur Entstehung der Kreuzförmigen Basilika des Abendlandes. (only a detail of the guesthouse). DOC20/2941. JETTER, Dieter (1986). Op. cit. (A copy of the actual map, with a text written at the location of the hostel). DOC40/5267.

Fig. 336 (p. 420) – Plan of the hospital and church of Cues (Germany). GÖTZ, Wolfgang (1968). Zentralbau und Zentralbautendenz in der Gotischen Architektur. Gebr. Mann Verlag GmbH., Berlin. DOC75/9008. See also fig. 184: BINDUNG, Günther (1987). Architektonisch Formenlehre. Wissenschaft-liche Buchgesellschaft, Darmstadt. ISBN 07861-6

Fig. 337 (p. 421) – Hospital Real in Granada. DOC40/5276. After a drawing by F. Prieto Moreno, around 1970. Fig. 38 in: JETTER, Dieter (1986). Das europäische Hospital. Von der Spätantike bis 1800. DuMont Buchverlag, Köln. ISBN 3-7701-1560-0

Fig. 338 (p. 442) – Hospital de los Reyes; Santiago de Compostela and the               Hospital de la Sangre in Sevilla (Spain). Fig. 37 and 39 in: JETTER, Dieter (1986). Op. cit. DOC40/5275; DOC40/5277.

Fig.  339 (p. 423) – Filarete’s original design for the Ospedale Maggiore. Fig. 32 in: THOMPSON & GOLDIN, 1975. And: SPENCER, John R. (Ed.)(1965). Filarete’s Treatise on Architecture. Yale University Press, New Haven. DOC40/5272.

Fig. 340 (p. 424) – A plan of the hospital and church of the Arcispedale di Santo Spirito in Rome. JETTER, Dieter (1986). Op. cit. DOC40/5273.

Fig. 341 (p. 425) – Albergo dei Poveiri at Genova (Italy). Abb. 102 in:  JETTER, Dieter (1987). Santiago, Toledo, Granada. Drei Spanische Kreuzhallenspitäler und ihr Nachhall in aller Welt. Geschichte des Hospitals. Band 6. Franz Steiner Verlag, Wiesbaden GmbH, Stuttgart. ISBN 3-515-04323. DOC79/9579.

Fig. 342 (p. 425) – The Hospital Naval in El Ferrol (Spain). Abb. 107 in: JETTER, Dieter (1987). Op. cit. DOC79/9583

Fig. 343-A (p. 426) – The Pest-Huys in Leiden (1658 – 1662). THOMPSON, John D. & GOLDIN, Grace (1975). The Hospital. A Social and Architectural History. Yale University Press, New Haven and London. ISBN 0-300-0 1829-0 And: JETTER, Dieter (1986). Op. cit.  DOC40/5290; DOC65/7783. Fig. 343-B (p. 426) – Pesthouse Amsterdam, 1630. DOC40/5289. Fig. 343-C (p. 426) – Furttenbach’s Grosses Lazarett, 1635. THOMPSON, John D. & GOLDIN, Grace (1975). Op. cit. DOC45/7778. Fig. 343-D (p. 426) –  Project for a hospital by Philibert Delorme, 1626. Int154/20869 – 20874 P. 173 in: PEVSNER, N. (1980). Historia de las tipologias arquitectónicas. Gustavo Gill, Barcelone. And: SILVA, Kleber Pinto (2001). “L’idée de fonction pour l’architecture: l’hopital et le XVIIIeme siecle(partie 2/6). La genèse de l’hôpital moderne: savoirs, pratiques médicales et l’hôpital”. Arquitextos, Texto Especial nº 060. São Paulo, Portal Vitruvius, Mar. 2001. http://www.vitruvius.com.br/arquitextos/arq000/esp/060.asp.  Fig. 343-E (p. 426) – Guy’s Hospital, London. JETTER, Dieter (1986). Das europäische Hospital. Von der Spätantike bis 1800. DuMont Buchverlag, Köln. ISBN 3-7701-1560-0. DOC40/5282. Fig. 343-F (p. 426) – Kaiserliches Invalidenhaus Budapest, Hungary. JETTER, Dieter (1986). Op. cit. DOC40/5288.

Fig. 344 (p. 427) – The plan of the Church of the Invalides. Drawing by Marten Kuilman after:  JANSON, H.W. (1962/1986). History of Art. Harry N. Abrams, Inc. New York. ISBN 0-8109-1094-2  As fig. 767: Jules Hardouin-Mansart – Church of the Invalides, Paris. 1680 -1691. Also: HAUTECOEUR, Louis (1954). Mystique et Architecture. Symbolisme du cercle et de la coupole. Editions A. et J. Picard et Cie, Paris. DOC65/7770. A birds eye view and overall plan is given as Abb. 117 – 118 in : JETTER, Dieter (1987). Op. cit. Given as an influence on Soufflot’s early designs for the dome of Ste-Geneviève. Fig. 13 in: BRAHAM, Allen (1980). The Architecture of the French Enlightenment. Thames and Hudson, London. DOC89/10860. Plan, longitudinal section and Tomb of Napoleon in: FLETCHER, Banister (1975). A History of Architecture (revised by J.C. Palmer). The Athlone Press, University of London. London. SBN 0 485 55001 6. DOC95/11767. DOC84/10262

Fig. 345 (p. 429 left) – St. Peter in Rome – drawing by Bramante. COOK, Theodore A. (1914). The Curves of Life. Constable and Company, London. Fig. 345 (p. 429 right) – Church des Invalides – see fig. 344.

Fig. 346 (p. 430) – The Mole Vanvitelliana in Ancona. View from the south. Drawing by Marten Kuilman after: http://www.introni.it/immagini/lazzaretto_Ancona.jpg  Ground plan – fig. 86 in: JETTER, Dieter (1986). Das europäische Hospital. Von der spätantike bis 1800. DuMont Buchverlag, Köln. ISBN 3-7701-1560-0. Int154/20781 – 20783; DOC40/5291. A plan of the harbour with the ‘Nuovo Lazzaretto’ – Lazzaretto e braccio nuovo nel porto di Ancona – after Luigi Vanvitelli/Giuseppe Vasi (1738) is given in : FARA, Amelio (2006). Napoleone Architetto nelle città della guerra in Italia. Arte e archeologia Studi e documenti. Leo S. Olski Editore. DOC96/11878.

Fig. 347 (p. 431) – The project of a new Hôtel-Dieu in Paris by Antoine Petit, 1774. Fig. 51 in: VIDLER, Anthony (1987). The Writing of the Walls. Architectural Theory in the Late Enlightenment. Princeton Architectural Press, Princeton NJ. ISBN 0-910413-07-X. From: Antoine Petit (1774). Mémoire sur la meilleure manière de bâtir un hôpital de malades. See also: LEFAIVRE, Liane & TZONIS, Alexander (2004). The Emergence of Modern Architecture. A documentary history from 1000 to 1810. Routledge, New Yok. ISBN 0-415-26025-6. DOC64/7704; DOC82/10030.

Fig. 348 (p. 432) – Poyet’s circular hospital project. Detailed plan of the second floor. VIDLER, Anthony (1987). Op. cit. And: THOMPSON, John & GOLDIN, Grace (1975). Op. cit. DOC64/7706; DOC65/7785.

Fig. 349 (p. 433) – The new Hotel-Dieu in Paris by Bernard Poyet, 1785. SILVA, Kleber Pinto (2001). “L’idee de fonction pour l’architecture: l’hopital et le XVIIIeme siecle(partie 5/6) Fonction, est-ell un concept ? fonction x fonctionnalité x fonctionnalisme (1)”. Arquitextos, Texto Especial nº 095. São Paulo, Portal Vitruvius, Sept. 2001. http://www.vitruvius.com.br/arquitextos/arq000/esp/095f.asp  As fig. 59 in: SZAMBIEN, W. (1986). Symetrie, Gout, caractère. Theorie et terminologie de l’architecture à l’age classique 1550 – 1800. Picard, Paris. ISBN 2-7084-0136 X. DOC13/1718; Int 154/20869. Elevation and transverse section through Poyet’s circular hospital project as fig. 137 in: THOMPSON, John D. & GOLDIN, Grace (1975). The Hospital. A Social and Architectural History. Yale University Press, New Haven and London. ISBN 0-300-0 1829-0. DOC65/7785. Bentham’s Panopticon and Poyet’s project for a Hotel-Dieu in: VIDLER, Anthony (1990). Claude-Nicolas Ledoux. Architecture and Social Reform at the End of the Ancien Régime. The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts. ISBN 0-262-22032-6. DOC103/12779. The original engraving of the Hotel-Dieu in Paris is from Bernard Poyet and Claude Philibert Coquéau in: Mémoire sur la nécessité de transférer et reconstruire l’Hôtel-Dieu de Paris (Paris, 1785).

Fig. 350 (p. 434) – John Howard (1726 – 1790). HOWARD, D.L. (1958). John Howard. Prison Reformer. Christopher Johnson, London.   And: http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/Rehoward.htm The orininal plan was illustrated in ‘Panopticon, or the Inspection House’ (1791). Further reference can be found in the correspondence of Jeremy Bentham, 30 March 1794 (to Evan Nepean). See: MILNE, Alexander T. (1981). The Correspondence of Jeremy Bentham. Vol. 5 January 1794 to December 1797. The Athlone Press. Int154/20777 – 20780; DOC79/9639; DOC103/12749.

Fig. 351 (p. 435) – Frederik’s Hospital in Copenhagen. Kaare Klint’s proportion study of the rooms. P. 123 in: RASMUSSEN, Steen Eiler (1959). Experiencing Architecture. Chapman & Hall, London. DOC78/9416.

Fig. 352 (p. 435) – The hospital in Wakefield. Model of the original 1818 building made by A.L. Ashworth, Hospital Secretary 1961 – 1973.  ROBERTS, Andrew  (2001). Notes on asylum architecture. http://www.mdx.ac.uk/WWW/STUDY/Asyarc.htm. See also for further information on asylums in Great Britain: ROBERTS, Andrew (2001). The Asylums Index 2001, Middlesex University (London): http://www.mdx.ac.uk/WWW/STUDY/4_13_TA.htm#Yorkshire  The West-Riding Pauper Lunatic Asylum at Wakefield was designed by Watson and Pritchett, 1815 – 1818. The east wing was added in 1831 and the west wing in 1841. See also p. 90, fig. 17 in: JETTER, Dieter (1981). Grundzüge der Geschichte des Irrenhauses. Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, Darmstadt. ISBN 3-534-08287-7. Int154/20879; Int155/20984; DOC94/11568.

Fig. 353 (p. 436) – The Royal Herbert Hospital in Woolwich, 1859 – 1864. Fig. 168 in: THOMPSON, John D. & GOLDIN, Grace (1975). Op. cit. DOC65/7787.

Fig 354 (p. 437) – The Beaujon Hospital, Clichy (Paris). Drawing by Marten Kuilman.

Fig. 355 (p. 436) – Ground plan Hospital S. Luis, Sao Paulo, Brasil.  Int154/20765; Int154/20864. Drawing by Marten Kuilman after: http://www.vitruvius.com.br/arquitextos/arq000/imagens/095_10.jpg

Fig. 356 (p. 439) – St. Barbara Hospital in Haarlem (The Netherlands). Drawing by Marten Kuilman after a photo by the author (Oct. 2006).  The inscription reads:

———  ‘OM dat W11 oVt ende behoeftICH schenen VerLaten

——— Heeft Hvgo Van AssendeLf hIer gestICht tonser baten

——— ANNO BARBERA VROVWEN GASTHUVS  1624

(Because we were once needed and lost did Hugo of Assendelft founded here for our good the Barbara Women Hospital, 1624).

Some of the capitals in this chronogram (or time verse) double as Roman figures. They give, in addition, the year 1435, which the foundation year. Only the small gateway remained of the original hospital. See for a general background of care in Holland in the sixteenth century: PARKER, Charles H. (1998). The Reformation of Community. Social Welfare and Calvinist Charity in Holland, 1572 – 1620. Cambridge University Press.

Fig. 357 (p. 440) – Ground plans of hospitals in Europe. Marten Kuilman.

Fig. 358  (p. 441) – The four theoretical positions of an observer (O) in the Observational Present (OP) towards a cyclic communication.

Fig. 359 (p. 442) – Prison design by Johann Bernard Fischer von Erlach. JASKOLSKI, Helmut (1994). Das Labyrinth. Symbol für Angst, Wieder-geburt und Befreiung. Kreuz Verlag, Stuttgart. ISBN 3-7831-1328-8. DOC29/4056.

Fig. 360 (p. 443) – Carcere VII. The Drawbridge. Second State. P. 69 in: FICACCI, Luigi (2000/2006). Piranesi. The Etchings. Taschen GmbH., Köln. ISBN 3-8228-5094-2. Int68/9116 9145. http://piranesi.free.fr/5a8.htm  See also the interesting article: MARSHALL, David R. (2003). Piranesi, Juvarra, and the Triumphal Bridge tradition. The Art Bulletin, 6/1/2003. http://www.vitruvio.ch/arc/piranesi/g_carceri.htm

Fig. 361 (p. 444) – Plan of the Narrenturm in Vienna (Austria), 1784. THOMPSON, John D. & GOLDIN, Grace (1975). The Hospital. A Social and Architectural History. Yale University Press, New Haven and London. ISBN 0-300-0 1829-0. DOC65/7784.

Fig. 362 (p. 445) – Prison project at Aix-en Province by Ledoux (1783/ 1785). From Rameé, Ledoux, pl. 61/62.  VIDLER, Anthony (1990). Claude-Nicolas Ledoux. Architecture and Social Reform at the End of the Ancien Régime. The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts. ISBN 0-262-22032-6 And: CHRIST, Yvan (1961). Projets et Divagations de Claude-Nicolas Ledoux, Architecte du Roi. Editions du Minotaure, Paris. And fig. 263 in: BRAHAM, Allen (1980). The Architecture of the French Enlightenment. Thames and Hudson, London. DOC9/1096;  DOC89/10898; DOC103/12785.

Fig. 363 (p. 446) – Panopticon Prison, 1797. VIDLER, Anthony (1987). The Writing of the Walls. Architectural Theory in the Late Enlightenment. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ. ISBN 0-910413-07-X. DOC64/7698.

Fig. 364 (p. 447) – The All-Seeing Eye. The Bentham Project, UCL (University College London) by Jonathan Harris and Irena Nicoll, with a Panopticon Bibliography. Int68/9163 www.ucl.ac.uk/Bentham-Project/info/panopticonhtm.htm

Fig. 365 (p. 448) – Glasgow Lunatic Asylum. THOMPSON, John D. & GOLDIN, Grace (1975). Op. cit. DOC65/7780.

Fig. 366 (p. 449) – Prison in Cherry Hill (Philadelphia). FRANKE, Hermannus J. (1990). Twee eeuwen gevangen. Over de ge-schiedenis van het gevangeniswezen en het emancipatieproces van gevangenen vanaf het eind van de achttiende eeuw tot heden. Academisch proefschrift, Universiteit van Amsterdam. Uitgeverij Het Spectrum, Utrecht. Also (but slightly different) as fig. 5.50 (Eastern State Penitentiary of Pennsylvia) in: ROTH, Leland M. (2001). American Architecture. A History. Icon Editions, Westview Press/Perseus Books Group; Boulder, Colorado/Oxford. ISBN 0-8133-3661-9. DOC11/1456; DOC107/13251.

Fig. 367  (p. 450) – Prison in Breda (The Netherlands). Int 156/21117. Drawing by Marten Kuilman after a photo by Henri de Laauw from Delft (Collection Breda’s Museum): http://www.nai.nl/e/collection/news/2003/0302_metzelaare.html

Fig. 368 (p. 451) – Dome of the prison in Haarlem (The Netherlands). Drawing by Marten Kuilman after a photo in newspaper by Poppe de Boer: United Photos/Haarlems Dagblad, 8th April 2006.

Fig. 369 (p. 453) – Pyramids near Gizeh, Egypt. Drawing by Marten Kuilman after: http://www.catchpenny.org/images/gizap.gif. Larry Orcutt’s website (http://www.catchpenny.org/) ‘Catchpenny Mysteries of Ancient Egypt explained & Other Sundry Stuff for Your Amusement and Edification’ is enjoyable reading, which helps ‘to dismantle the walls of deception, one brick at a time’.

Fig. 370 (p.454) – Pyramid of Cephren by Piazzi Smyth. Int92/12328. http://www.egyptarchive.co.uk/his_html/smyth_18.html

Fig. 371 (p. 456) – Reconstruction of the rock tombs at Kew el-Kabir. HOGERVORST, Bert & WOLTERMAN, Charles (1995). Confrontatie met de dood in Oud-Egypte. Ex Oriente Lux, Leiden/Peeters, Leuven. ISBN 90-72690-10-9   Also as frontispiece in: GRAJETZKI, Wolfram (2006). The Middle Kingdom of Ancient Egypt. History, Archaeology and Society. Gerald Duckworth & Co. Ltd, London. ISBN 0 7156 3435 6. DOC47/5945; DOC108/13459.

Fig. 372 (p. 457) – Groundplan of the Tomb of Wakhas II at Quaw el-Kebir. HOLLAND, Ingve Jan (1996). Grande Arche und Louvre-Pyramide. Zwei Pariser Staatsprojekte unter François Mitterrand. Scaneg Verlag, München. ISBN 3-89235-108-2. DOC74/8874.

Fig. 373 (p. 457) – Canopen chest. DESROCHES-NOBLECOURT, Christiane (1963). Toetanchamon. Leven en dood van een farao. George Rainbird Ltd., London/H.J.W. Becht Uitgeversmaatschappij, Amsterdam. DOC50/6276.

Fig. 374 (p. 458) – A funeral relief with Osiris of the 23rd Dynasty. GROF, Stanislav (1994). Books of the Dead. Manuals for Living and Dying. Thames and Hudson, London. ISBN 0-500-81041-9. DOC26/3760.

Fig. 375 (p. 459) – The three main tomb types at Saqquara. MARTIN, Geoffrey T. (1991). The Hidden Tombs of Memphis. New Discoveries from the Time of Tutankhamun and Ramesses the Great. Thames and Hudson Ltd., London. ISBN 0-500-39026-6. DOC24/3444.

Fig. 376 (p. 460) – The three main building stages of the tomb of Horemheb in Saqqara (Memphis). MARTIN, Geoffrey T. (1991). Op. cit. DOC24/3443.

Fig. 377 (p. 461) – The Four Pillars of Heaven and the Djed symbol. BROWN, Vincent (2002). The Concept of the Djed Symbol. Int158/21348 – 21364. http://www.pyramidofman.com/Djed/

Fig. 378 (p. 462) – The Kamilari Tomb on the isle of Crete (4 kilometers from Phaistos). A drawing by Marten Kuilman after:  http://www.interkriti.org/timbaki/kamilari.htm http://lettere.unive.it/materiale_didattico/arheologia_egea/6.htm  Findings of this site are in the Archaeological Museum in Iraklion. Int57/7614; Int96/12901 – 12910 (with bibliography); Int158/21411.

Fig. 379 (p. 464) – Two graves at the Tombs of the Kings in Kato Pafos (Western Cyprus). Photograph by Marten Kuilman (Nov. 1994).

Fig. 380 (p. 465) – Megalithic ‘Gran Tumulo de La Guancha’ on the isle of Gran Canaria. Reconstruction by E. Penkala. PENKALA, Maria (1978). De laatste Atlantiërs. Uitgeverij Ankh-Hermes, Deventer. ISBN 90 202 3297 5.

Fig. 381 (p. 466) – A plan of the tumulus (grave) of Arzan. PORTE, Maurizio & SILIOTTI, Alberto (Ed.) (1996). Virtual Archaeology. Great Discoveries Brought to Life Through Virtual Reality. Thames and Hudson. Arnoldo Mondadori Editore, Milan. ISBN 0-500-05085-6. DOC50/6355.

Fig. 382 (p. 467) – Grave plans from several sites in Mongolia. Fig. 1.7 in: HARLEY, J.B. & WOODWARD, David (1994). The History of Cartography – Vol. II. Book Two. Cartography in the Traditional East and Southeast Asian Societies. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago/London. ISBN 0-226-31637-8.  DOC28/4000.   a. From Hovsgol-Nuur, Mongolia, after A.P. Okladnikov (1981). Petroglify Mongolii (Nauka, Leningrad).  b. From Dood-Chulgan, Mongolia. After E.A. Novgorodova (1980). Alte Kunst der Mongolei (E.A. Seemann, Leipzig). c. From Ich-Tengerin-Am, northern Mongolia. After A.P. Okladnikov and V.D. Zaporozhskaya (1969/1970). Petroglify Zabaykal’ya (Nauka, Leningrad). d. Ocher paintings from Gachurt, Mongolia, said to represent the earthly world and netherworld. After E.A. Novgorodova (1984). Mir petroglifov Mongolii (Nauka, Moscow). e. Ocher paintings from the end of the first millennium B.C. at Gachurt, Mongolia. After E.A. Novgorodova (1984). Mir petroglifov Mongolii (Nauka, Moscow). f. After A.P. Okladnikov and V.D. Zaporozhskaya (1969/1970). Petroglify Zabaykal’ya (Nauka, Leningrad). Cover illustration of volume 1.

Fig. 383 (p. 469) – A drawing of Sibylle Mertens-Schaffhausen (1797 – 1857) by L. Krewel. http://www.lwl.org/literaturkommission/1biblio/avddroste/avdmedien/abbildung/7abb_famfr.htm See also: HOUBER, H.H. (1935). Die Rheingräfin. Das Leben der Kölnerin Sybille Mertens Schaffhausen. Essener Verlagsanstalt. Int104/14050.

Fig. 384 (p. 470) – Reconstruction of the Mausoleum by Cesare Cesariano, in: M. Vitruvio Pollione, De Architettura Libri Decem. Como, 1521. HAFNER, German (1979). Tatort Antike. Archäologen auf den Spuren ver-schollener Kunstwerke. Econ Verlag GmbH., Düsseldorf und Wien. ISBN 3 430 13741 1.  DOC31/4367 .  Also: The full picture of the Mausoleum of Cesare Cesariano, Como (1521), in: ROMER, John & Elizabeth (1995). De zeven wereldwonderen. O’Mara Books Ltd., London/ TELEAC/ Balans, Amsterdam ISBN 90-6533-393-2. DOC28/3996. Another reconstruction of the Mausoleum te Halikarnassos can be found as Pl. 113 in: BOARDMAN, John (Ed.) (1993). The Oxford History of Classical Art. Oxford University Press, Oxford. ISBN 0-19-81433386-9. DOC31/4298. A reconstruction by the Danish Halicarnassos Expedition of 1977. Prof. Kristian Jeppesen. Plate 5 in: CURL, James S. (1980). DOC26/3631. A reconstruction by A.J. Stevenson. ROMER, John & Elizabeth (1995). Op.cit. DOC28/3995. A reconstruction of the Mausoleum of Halikarnassos. Completed around 350 BC. WATKIN, David (1986). De westerse architectuur. Een geschiedenis (A History of western Architecture). SUN, Nijmegen/Callmann & King Ltd., London. ISBN 90 616668 409 9. DOC35/4765. For the Mausoleo by Gualtheus Rivius, 1548 (after Cesariano), see fig. 19: KUNOTH, George (1956). Die Historische Architektur Fischers von Erlach. Verlag L. Schwann, Düsseldorf. DOC86/10572.

Fig. 385 (p. 471) – Mausoleum – Engraving by C. Holderwang, 1800. Int69/9374-9375. Frontispiece of the Latin edition of Vitruvius’ ‘De Architecture’ by Auguste Rode. http://diglit.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/diglitData/image/vitruvius1800/1/000_titelblatt_a.jpg  and http://www.ukans.edu/history/index/europe/ancient_rome/E/Roman/Texts/Vitruvius/home.html A digital copy of this book is given by the Ruprecht-Karls-University of Heidelberg: Vitruvius; Rode, August [Hrsg.]. Marci Vitruvii Pollionis De architectura libri decem. Berlin, 1800. http://digi.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/diglit/vitruvius1800

Fig. 386 (p. 472) – The Nereid Monument in the British Museum, London.  Int159/21513. A drawing by Marten Kuilman after: http://www.chezdisney.net/gallery/album80/dscn3172

Fig. 387 (p. 473) – The Tomb of Mausolus. A drawing by Marten Kuilman after a reconstruction by Prof. Adler of Berlin (1900) as given by W.R. Lethaby (1908). Int85/11456; Int104/13995 – 14032; Int159/21494 – 21496.

Fig. 388 (p. 474) – A bust of Lysimachus (left) found at Ephesus and now in the archaeological museum of Selçuk (Turkey) and Seleucus Nicator (right), discovered in the Villa of the Papyri at Herculaneum, now in the Museo Archeologico Nazionale, Napoli (Italy).  Int199/26978. Photo’s by Marco Prins and Jona Lendering. http://www.llivius.org/a/turkey/curupedium/curupedium.html 

Fig. 389 (p. 475) – Plan of a typical Parsee ‘Tower of Silence’. From: MODI, Javanji Jamshedji (1922). The Religion, Ceremonies and Customs of the Parsees, India Office Library and Records Offive, Bombay. Also in: CURL, James S (1980). A Celebration of death. An introduction to some of the buildings, monuments, and settings of funerary architecture in the Western European tradition. Constable and Company Limited, London. ISBN 0 09 46 3000 3. DOC26/3644.

Fig. 390 (p. 478) – The grave of Hou-chia-chuang in Ayang. HENTZE, Carl (1967). Funde in Alt-China. Das Welterleben im ältesten China. Sternstunden der Archäologie. Musterschmidt Verlag, Göttingen.  For an overview of the Chine arts, including the excavations in Ayang, see: SULLIVAN, Michael (1967/1982). The Arts of China. University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, California. ISBN 0-520-04917-9. DOC18/2620.

Fig. 391 (p. 479) – Chronology of the Chinese cultural period. JORDAN, David K. (2006). Periods of Chinese History. Int160/21596. http://weber.ucsd.edu/~dkjordan/chin/chinahistory/hbperiods-u.html

Fig. 392 (p. 480) – The Chinese Wall. P. 187 in: REYMOND, M. (1893). Weltgeschichte. Bnd I. Hausschatz des Wissens. Abteilung VIII.  Verlag Neumann, Neudamm.

Fig. 393 (p. 482) – The CF-graph of the Chinese cultural period. An interpretation by Marten Kuilman.

Fig. 394 (p. 483) – The Terracotta Army of Emperor Shi Huangdi. A drawing by Marten Kuilman after p. 226 in: FORTE, Maurizio & SILIOTTI, Alberto (Ed.)(1996). Virtual Archaeology. Great Discoveries Brought to Life Through Virtual Reality. Thames and Hudson. Arnoldo Mondadori Editore, Milan. ISBN 0-500-05085-6. DOC50/6358.

Fig. 395 (p. 485)  – The Mausoleum of Augustus. This engraving is from Sadler’s ‘Vestigi delle antichita di Roma, Tivoli, Puzzulo et altri luoghi’’ (Prague, 1606). DOC91/11161;   Int105/14144 – 14147. http://www.csun.edu/~hcfll004/maus-sod.jpg  Sadler probably used the often-reproduced illustration of Duperac’s  ‘Vestigi dell’Antichità di Roma’ (1575). http://harborside.com/~rayj/augustus.html. It was described as ‘the labyrinth garden of Palazzo Soderini’ in the article by JACKS, Philip (2008). Restauratio and Reuse: The Afterlife of Roman Ruins. Places, 20(1), 10. www.escholarship.org/uc/item/66n5329v?display=all And www.designobserver.com/media/pdf/Restauratio_an_827.pdf   See also fig. 37 (p. 45): COLVIN, Howard (1991). Architecture and the After-Life. Yale University Press, New Haven and London. ISBN 0-300-05098-4. He reproduced Etienne Duperac’s plate from the edition published in Rome in 1639 and now in the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford. See for a different illustration of the ‘Mausoleum Augusti’ by Giacomo Lauro (c. 1583 – 1650), ‘Antiquae urbis splendor’ (1612 – 1628), fig. 195 in: ETLIN, Richard A. (1984). The Architecture of Death. The Transformation of the Cemetery in Eighteenth-Century Paris. The MIT Press, Cambridge, and London, England. ISBN 0-262-05027-7

Fig. 396 (p. 486) – The Mausoleum of Emperor Hadrianus in Rome. Drawing by Marten Kuilman. Int87/11666 – 11676.

Fig. 397 (p. 487) – Interior of the S. Constanza Church in Rome. LANCIANI, Rodolfo (1892). Pagan and Christian Rome. Published by Houghton, Mifflin and Company, Boston and New York. Int245/32873. http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Gazetteer/Places/Europe/Italy/Lazio/Roma/Rome/_Texts/Lanciani/LANPAC/4*.html

Fig. 398 (p. 488) – The circular plan of the Santa Constanza in Rome. HAUTECOEUR, Louis (1954). Mystique et Architecture. Symbolisme du cercle et de la coupole. Editions A. et J. Picard et Cie, Paris. DOC65/7764.

Fig 399 (p. 489) – The tomb of P. Vibius Marianus at the Via Claudia in Rome. DOC26/3630;  DOC90/11049. Drawing by Marten Kuilman after a photograph (c. 1870) in J.H. Parker Collection, British School at Rome, No. PA 1634. Plate 2 in: CURL, James S. (1980). Op cit.  See also p. 89; fig. 81 (left) in: COLVIN, Howard (1991). Architecture and the After-Life. Yale University Press, New Haven and London. ISBN 0-300-05098-4. G.B. Piranesi (1720 – 1778) depicted the sarcophagus-tomb as the ‘Tomb of Nero’. COLVIN (1991) p. 88, fig. 80. The death of Nero and the subsequent  place of the Tomb of Nero was described by LANCIANO, Rudolpho (1892). Op. cit.  Page 189: ‘Nero seemed determined to put an end to his life by throwing himself from one of the bridges; but again his courage failed, and he begged to be shown a hiding-place. It was at this supreme moment that Phaon the freedman offered him his suburban villa, situated between the Via Salaria and the Via Nomentana, four miles outside the Porta Collina. The proposal was accepted at once; and barefooted, and dressed in a tunic, with a mantle of the commonest material about his shoulders, he jumped on a horse and started for the gate, accompanied by only four men, – Phaon, Epaphroditus, Sporus, and another whose name is not given’. It is curious to read in Suetonius of the many grimaces the wretch made before he could determine to kill himself; he made up his mind to do so only when he heard the tramping of the horsemen whom the Senate had sent to arrest him. He then put the dagger into his throat, aided in giving the last thrust by his freedman Epaphroditus. The centurion sent to take him alive arrived before he expired. To him Nero addressed these last words: “Too late! Is this your fidelity?”. Nero’s ashes were placed in the tomb of the Domitian family, which stood on the spur of the Pincian Hill which is behind the present church of S. Maria del Popolo.

Fig. 400 (p. 490) –  Reconstruction of the mausoleum of Diocletian. DOC9/1120. MARASOVIC, J. & MARASOVIC, T. (1969). Der Palast des Diokletian. Verlag Anton Schroll & Co., Wien/München. See also: MARASOVIC, Tomislav (1994). Diocletian’s Palace. The World Cultural Heritage. Dominonic and Buvina Publishers, Zagreb-Split.

Fig. 401 (p. 492) – The mausoleum of Theodoric the Goth at Ravenna. DOC26/3629; DOC81/9861. Drawing by Marten Kuilman after CURL, James S. (1980). Op.cit. See also: LOWRIE, Walter (1906). Monuments of the Early Church. The MacMillan Company & Co. Ltd., New York/London.

Fig. 402 (p. 494) – A grave tomb in Amrit (Syria). DOC65/7762. HAUTECOEUR, Louis (1954). Mystique et Architecture. Symbolisme du cercle et de la coupole. Editions A. et J. Picard et Cie, Paris. The journalist and traveler Carol Miller investigated – on the website ‘Syria Gate’ – the roots and cultural links of the people living in the Amrit area: ‘Amrit was traditionally regarded as a cult site over a magical spring, with curative powers, and an adjacent necropolis for those who were not cured. Archaeological remains have been identified – though no one knows with what culture – and can be established as far back as the sixth to the eighth century B.C.’ And: ‘Or possibly Amrit was a dominion of those intrepid Amorites, a Semitic people, amorphous and ill-defined, but a nonetheless assertive and even ruthless collection of pasturing people, possibly from the area of the “Five Rivers” of the Punjab, who had already founded a chain of kingdoms in Mari, in Babylon, in Terqa, Ebla, Ugarit and Byblos, among many others, as they wended their way toward the west. Their name, in fact, from the Akkadian amarr?, means “west”.’ Miller made the interesting connection between the Indian city of Amritsar (Pundjab) and Amrit (Syria): ‘A joyous dilemma, wistful and remote’. ‘The Hyksos invaders of Egypt were verifiably Amorite. (See: Dictionary of the Ancient Near East, edited by Piotr Bienkowsky and Alan Millard, Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Press, 2000). Hamurabi of Babylon was the sixth king in an Amorite dynasty. His famous code of law conformed to an Amorite ethic. (See: Amélie Kuhrt, The Ancient Near East, c. 3000-330 BC, London, Routledge, 1995, 2 vols.); Zimri-Lim, the last king of Mari, once Hamurabi’s ally, ultimately his rival, was Amorite, and so fell victim to the same ethic. (See: Gwendolyn Leick, ‘Who’s Who in the Ancient Near East’, London, Routledge, 1999)’. http://www.syriagate.com/Syria/about/cities/Tartous/amrit-cm.htm

Fig. 403 (p. 495) – Mausoleum of Khwaja Rabi at Mashad (Iran). ARDALAN, Nader & BAKHTIAR, Laleh (1973). The Sense of Unity. The Sufi Tradition in Persian Architecture. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago/London. ISBN  0-226-02560-8. DOC20/2902.

Fig. 404 (p. 496) – Jabal-i-Sang near Kerman (Iran). ARDALAN, Nader & BAKHTIAR, Laleh (1973). The Sense of Unity. The Sufi Tradition in Persian Architecture. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago/London. ISBN  0-226-02560-8. DOC20/2904. ‘The town (of Kerman) is situated close to the wastes of Dasht-e Lut, from which it is separated by a range of mountains. Its name is probably derived from the tribe of Germanioi listed by Herodotus. Believed to have been founded in the early 3rd century AD by Ardashir I, founder of the Sassanian dynasty, it was from the 7th century ruled in turn by the Arabs, by Buyids, the Seljuks, the Turkmans and the Mongols. But it did not become famous for its carpets until long after the time of Marco Polo (who mentions only the skill of local leather workers, silk embroiderers and armoreres in 1271), for the town expanded rapidly under the Safavids in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, both the English and Dutch exporting Kermani carpets from the port of Bandar Abbas’. http://www.salamiran.org/content/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=134&Itemid=216

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